Compaction Behaviour of Lateritic Soil–Calcium Chloride Mixtures

  • John E. Sani
  • Roland Kufre EtimEmail author
  • Alexander Joseph
Original Paper


Laboratory studies on lateritic soil treated with up to 8% calcium chloride (CaCl2) by dry weight of soil was carried out to establish the soil improving potential. Tests carried out include Atterberg limits and linear shrinkage, compaction characteristics (maximum dry density, MDD and optimum moisture content, OMC), strength characteristics (unconfined compressive strength, UCS and California bearing ratio, CBR) and microanalysis. Compaction and strength characteristics test were investigated using three compactive efforts [i.e. British Standard light, BSL (standard Proctor), West African Standard, WAS or ‘intermediate’ and British Standard heavy, BSH (modified Proctor)]. Results obtained show that Atterberg limits decreased with increased calcium chloride content. MDD increased with a corresponding decreased OMC of the soil–CaCl2 mixtures for the three compactive efforts. Peak UCS and CBR values were obtained at 4% CaCl2 content with increasing compactive effort. Microanalysis using Scan Electron Microscope, SEM shows the transformation of surface morphology at the edges of clay particles. Statistical analysis of result shows that CaCl2 content had significant influence on the Atterberg limit parameters and both the variations of CaCl2 content and compactive effort had significant effect on the strength parameters, maximum dry density as well as the optimum moisture content. The R2 values of regression models show that CaCl2, LL, MDD, OMC and CE have considerable influence on the UCS at 7 days curing and CBR values. Peak strength values are below those recommended for sub base and base stabilization, hence CaCl2 is not convenient as a stand-alone stabilizer but can be adequate as a modifier or as admixture in Cement or lime stabilization of lateritic soil.


Compaction Lateritic soil Calcium chloride Atterberg limit Strength characteristics SEM Statistical analysis 



  1. AASHTO (1986) Standard specifications for transport materials and methods of sampling and testing, 14th edn. American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials (AASHTO), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Abood TT, Kasa AB, Chik ZB (2007) Stabilisation of silty clay soil using chloride compounds. J Eng Sci Technol 2(1):102–110Google Scholar
  3. Amadi A (2010) Evaluation of changes in index properties of lateritic soil stabilized with fly ash. Leonardo Electron J Pract Technol 17:69–78Google Scholar
  4. ASTM (1992) Annual book of standards vol 04.08. American Society for Testing and Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM (2007) Annual book of ASTM standards, Vol 04.08. American Society for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM Standard D1557 (1991/1998) Laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using modified effort. ASTM International, West Conshohocken. Retrieved from
  7. ASTM Standard D2166 (2000) Unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soil. ASTM International, West Conshohocken. Retrieved from
  8. Bassey OB, Attah IC, Ambrose EE, Etim RK (2017) Correlation between CBR values and index properties of soils: a case study of Ibiono, Oron and Onna in Akwa Ibom state. Resour Environ 7(4):94–102. Google Scholar
  9. Beckett CTS, Hall MR, Augarde CE (2013) Macrostructural changes in compacted earthen construction materials under loading. Acta Geotech 8:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beckett CTS, Smith JC, Ciancio D, Augarde CE (2015) Tensile strengths of flocculated compacted unsaturated soils. Géotech Lett 5:254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowders JJ, Daniel DE (1987) Hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay to dilute organic chemicals. ASCE J Geotech Eng 113(12):1432–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. BS 1377 (1990) Method of testing soils for civil engineering purpose. British Standard Institute, BSI, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. BS 1924 (1990) Method of test for stabilized soils. British Standard Institute, BSI, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins K, McGown A (1974) The form and function of micro fabric features in a variety of natural soils. Géotechnique 24(2):223–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eberemu AO, Edeh JE, Gbolokun AO (2013) The geotechnical properties of lateritic soil treated with crushed glass cullet. Adv Mater Res 824:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Etim RK, Eberemu AO, Osinubi KJ (2017) Stabilization of black cotton soil with iron ore tailings as admixture. Transp Geotech 10:85–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gadzama EW, Nuhu I, Yohanna P (2017) Influence of temperature on the engineering properties of selected tropical black clays. Arab J Sci Eng. Google Scholar
  18. Gidigasu MD (1974) Degree of weathering in the identification of laterite materials for engineering purposes. Eng Geol 8(3):213–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gidigasu MD, Dogbey JLK (1980) Geotechnical characterization of laterized decomposed rocks for pavement construction in dry sub-humid environment. In: 6th South East Asian conference on soil engineering, Taipei, vol 1, pp 493–506Google Scholar
  20. Hausmann MN (1990) Engineering principles of ground modification. McGraw- Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Ingles OG, Metcalf JB (1972) Soil stabilization principles and practice. Butterworths, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  22. Jefferson I, Rogers CDF (1998) Liquid limit and the temperature sensitivity of clays. J Eng Geol 49:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lajurkar S, Golait YS, Khandeshwar SR (2016) Effect of calcium chloride solution on engineering properties of black cotton soil. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 5(2):1766–1771Google Scholar
  24. Lambe TW (1958) The structure of compacted clay. J Soil Mech Found 84:55–70Google Scholar
  25. Mitchell JK, Radd L (1973) Control of volume change in expansive earth materials. In: Proceedings of workshop on expansive clays and shales in highway design and construction, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., pp 200–217Google Scholar
  26. Monroy R, Zdravkovic L, Ridley A (2010) Evolution of microstructure in compacted London clay during wetting and loading. Géotechnique 60:105–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moses G, Osinubi KJ (2013) Influence of compactive efforts on cement bagasse ash treatment of expansive black cotton soil. World Acad Sci Eng Technol Int Sch Sci Res Innov 7(7):1541–1548Google Scholar
  28. Nigerian General Specification (1997) Bridges and road works. Federal Ministry of Works, AbujaGoogle Scholar
  29. Okunlola IA, Idris-Nda A, Dindey AO, Kolawole LL (2014) Geotechnical and geochemical properties of lateritic profile on migmatite gneiss along Ogbomosho-Ilorin highway, south western Nigeria. Afr J Geogr Sci 1(1):01–06Google Scholar
  30. Ola SA (1980) Permeability of three compacted tropical soils. Q J Eng Geol Lond 13:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ola SA (1983) The geotechnical properties of black cotton soils of north eastern nigeria. In: Ola SA (ed) Tropical soils of Nigeria in engineering practice. Balkama, Rotterdam, pp 160–178Google Scholar
  32. Oluremi JR, Yohanna P, Akinola SO (2017) Effects of compactive efforts on geotechnical properties of spent engine oil contaminated laterite soil. J Eng Sci Technol 12(3):596–607Google Scholar
  33. Oriola F, Moses G (2010) Groundnut shell ash stabilization of black cotton soil. Electron J Geotech Eng 15:415–428Google Scholar
  34. Osinubi KJ (1995) Lime modification of black cotton soils. Spectr J 2(1):112–122Google Scholar
  35. Osinubi KJ (1998a) Influence of compaction delay on the properties of cement-stabilized lateritic soil. J Eng Res 6(1):13–26Google Scholar
  36. Osinubi KJ (1998b) Influence of compactive efforts and compaction delays on lime-treated soils. J Transp Eng ASCE 124(2):149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Osinubi KJ (1998c) Permeability of lime-treated lateritic soil. J Transp Eng ASCE 124(5):456–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Osinubi KJ (2006) Influence of compactive efforts on lime-slag treated tropical black clay. J Mater Civ Eng 18(2):175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Osinubi KJ, Mustapha AM (2005) Potentials of bagasse ash as a pozzolana. In: Proceedings of the 4th Nigerian materials congress “NIMACON 2005”, Zaria, Nigeria, 17–19th November, pp 41–45Google Scholar
  40. Osinubi KJ, Oyelakin MA, Eberemu AO (2011) Improvement of black cotton soil with ordinary portland cement-locust bean waste ash blend. Electron J Geotech Eng 16:619–627Google Scholar
  41. Osinubi KJ, Yohanna P, Eberemu AO (2015) Cement modification of tropical black clay using iron ore tailing as admixture. J Transp Geotech 5:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Osinubi KJ, Eberemu AO, Yohanna P, Etim RK (2016) Reliability estimate of the compaction characteristics of iron ore tailings treated tropical black clay as road pavement sub-base material. Am Soc Civ Eng Geotech Spec Publ 271:855–864Google Scholar
  43. Park J, Vipulanandan C, Kim JW, Oh M (2006) Effects of surfactants and electrolyte solutions on the properties of soil. Environ Geol 49(7):977–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Perloff WH (1976) Soil mechanics, principles and applications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Peter GM (1993) Fly ash stabilization of tropical hawai soils. In: Sharp KD (ed) Fly ash for soil improvement, Geotechnical Engineering Division of ASCE, Geotechnical Special Publications, No 36, pp 15–20Google Scholar
  46. Petry TM, Amstrong JC (1989) Stabilization of expansive clay soils, TRR-1219, TRB, pp 103–112Google Scholar
  47. Sharma HD, Lewis SP (1994) Waste containment systems, waste stabilization, and landfills: design and evaluation. Wiley, Hoboken, p 588Google Scholar
  48. Shepard JM (1991) Full depth reclamation with calcium chloride”, TRR-1295, TRB, pp 87–94Google Scholar
  49. Shon CS, Saylak D, Mishra S (2010) Combined use of calcium chloride and fly ash in road based stabilization. J Transp Res Rec 2186:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Simms PH, Yanful EK (2001) Measurement and estimation of pore shrinkage and pore distribution in a clayey till during soil–water characteristic curve tests. Can Geotech J 38(4):741–754. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Srikanth T, Harnadh KLAV (2013) Effect of sodium chloride on some geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. Int J Concept Mech Civ Eng 26–29:133Google Scholar
  52. TRRL (1977) A guide to the structural design of bitumen surfaced roads in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Road Note 31, H. M. S. O., LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Ugbe FC (2011) Basic Engineering geological properties of lateritic soils from western niger delta. Res J Environ Earth Sci 3(5):571–577Google Scholar
  54. Zbik MS, Smart RS, Morris GE (2008) Kaolinite flocculation structure. J Colloid Interface Sci 328:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zumrawi MME, Eltayeb KA (2016) Laboratory investigation of expansive soil stabilized with calcium chloride. Int J Environ Chem Ecol Geophy Eng 10(2):223–227Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Sani
    • 1
  • Roland Kufre Etim
    • 2
  • Alexander Joseph
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNigeria Defence AcademyKadunaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringAkwa Ibom State UniversityIkot AkpadenNigeria

Personalised recommendations