Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 57–69 | Cite as

Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) net nitrogen fixation experiment at a paddy soil surface under submerged conditions

  • Kentaro HayashiEmail author
  • Takeshi Tokida
  • Miwa Yashima Matsushima
  • Keisuke Ono
  • Hirofumi Nakamura
  • Toshihiro Hasegawa
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative net free-living nitrogen (N) fixation and its response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the submerged surface of paddy soil. The study site was an actual paddy area in central Japan that was equipped with a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility and was composed of four bays, where each bay had an elevated CO2 plot (FACE plot) and an ambient plot. Field incubation was conducted at subplots without N fertilizer application from May 28 to August 18, 2012 (82 days). The CO2 enrichment was an average of +528 ppm during the study period at the subplots. The changes in total N (TN) content in the surface soil (0–1 cm) were determined in comparison to the initial TN content. The cumulative net N fixations during the 82-day study period were 47.1 ± 3.7 and 43.3 ± 5.8 (standard error) kg N ha−1 in the FACE and ambient plots, respectively. The difference between the FACE and ambient plots was not significant (p = 0.05). However, these values were partly affected by the charophyte blooms, which are not involved in N fixation. The results are not conclusive, and the one bay without charophyte blooming displayed a significant increase in the cumulative net N fixation (approximately 10 kg N ha−1) with CO2 enrichment (p < 0.001).

Keywords

Biological nitrogen fixation FACE Free-living phototroph Nitrogen fixer No nitrogen fertilizer application Rice paddy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our gratitude to Messrs. Hironori Wakabayashi and Terushi Kamada, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan, for their help with the installation of the measuring weirs for irrigation monitoring. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, No. 22248026 provided by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Tsukuba FACE was established and maintained by “Development of technologies for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries”, a project provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan.

References

  1. App AA, Watanabe I, Alexander M, Ventura W, Daez C, Santiago T, De Datta SK (1980) Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation associated with the rice plant in flooded soils. Soil Sci 130:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. App AA, Watanabe I, Ventura TS, Bravo M, Jurey CD (1983) The effect of cultivated and wild rice varieties on the nitrogen balance of flooded soil. Soil Sci 141:448–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chalk PM, Ladha JK (1999) Estimation of legume symbiotic dependence: an evaluation of techniques based on 15N dilution. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1901–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen WC, Yen JH, Chang CS, Wang YS (2009) Effects of herbicide butachlor on soil microorganisms and on nitrogen-fixing abilities in paddy soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:120–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng W, Inubushi K, Yagi K, Sakai H, Kobayashi K (2001) Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on biological nitrogen fixation, nitrogen mineralization and carbon decomposition in submerged rice soil. Biol Fertil Soils 34:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng W, Sakai H, Matsushima M, Yagi K, Hasegawa T (2010) Response of the floating aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides to elevated CO2, temperature, and phosphorus levels. Hydrobiologia 656:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Das AC, Mukherjee D (1999) Insecticidal effects on the activity and numbers of non-symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and on some chemical properties of rice soil. Microbiol Res 153:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hasegawa T, Sakai H, Tokida T, Nakamura H, Zhu C, Usui Y, Yoshimoto M, Fukuoka M, Wakatsuki H, Katayanagi N, Matsunami T, Kaneta Y, Sato T, Takakai F, Sameshima R, Okada M, Mae T, Makino A (2013) Rice cultivar responses to elevated CO2 at two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites in Japan. Funct Plant Biol 40:148–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hauck RD (1971) Quantitative estimates of nitrogen-cycle processes: concepts and review. In: Nitrogen-15 in soil–plant studies. IAEA-PL-341/6, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 65–80Google Scholar
  10. Hayashi K, Matsuda K, Ono K, Tokida T, Hasegawa T (2013) Amelioration of the reactive nitrogen flux calculation by a day/night separation in weekly mean air concentration measurements. Atmos Environ 79:462–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirota Y, Fujii T, Sano Y, Iyama S (1978) Nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of rice. Nature 276:416–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoque MM, Inubushi K, Miura S, Kobayashi K, Kim H-Y, Okada M, Yabashi S (2001) Biological dinitrogen fixation and soil microbial biomass carbon as influenced by free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) at three levels of nitrogen fertilization in a paddy field. Biol Fertil Soils 34:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kimura M (2005) Populations, community composition and biomass of aquatic organisms in the floodwater of rice fields and effects of field management. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 51:159–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kyuma K (2004) 8.3 Nitrogen fixation. In: Paddy soil science. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto, pp 137–144Google Scholar
  15. Ladha JK, Reddy PM (2003) Nitrogen fixation in rice systems: state of knowledge and future prospects. Plant Soil 252:151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ladha JK, Dawe D, Ventura TS, Singh U, Ventura W, Watanabe I (2000) Long-term effects of urea and green manure on rice yields and nitrogen balance. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1993–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Stahl DA, Clark DP (2012) 13.14 Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase. In: Brock biology of microorganisms, 13th edn. Pearson, San Francisco, pp 391–395Google Scholar
  18. Malarvizhi P, Ladha JK (1999) Influence of available nitrogen and rice genotype on associative dinitrogen fixation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matsuguchi T, Tangcham B, Patiyuth S (1974) Free-living nitrogen fixers and acetylene reduction in tropical rice field. Jpn Agric Res Q 8:253–258Google Scholar
  20. Nakamura H, Tokida T, Yoshimoto M, Sakai H, Fukuoka M, Hasegawa T (2012) Performance of the enlarged rice-FACE system using pure-CO2 installed in Tsukuba, Japan. J Agric Meteorol 68:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ono S, Koga H (1984) Natural nitrogen accumulation in a paddy soil in relation to nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae. Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 55:465–470 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Patnaik GK, Kanungo PK, Moorthy BTS, Mahana PK, Adhya TK, Rao VR (1995) Effect of herbicides on nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) associated with rice rhizosphere. Chemospere 30:339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roger PA, Ladha JK (1992) Biological N2 fixation in wetland rice fields: estimation and contribution to nitrogen-balance. Plant Soil 141:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roger PA, Watanabe I (1986) Technologies for utilizing biological nitrogen-fixation in wetland rice: potentialities, current usage, and limiting factors. Fertil Res 9:39–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shrestha RK, Ladha JK (1996) Genotypic variation in promotion of rice dinitrogen fixation as determined by nitrogen-15 dilution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:1815–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tokida T, Fumoto T, Cheng W, Matsunami T, Adachi M, Katayanagi N, Matsushima M, Okawara Y, Nakamura H, Okada M, Sameshima R, Hasegawa T (2010) Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and soil warming on CH4 emission from a rice paddy field: impact assessment and stoichiometric evaluation. Biogeosciences 7:2639–2653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tokida T, Adachi M, Cheng W, Nakajima Y, Fumoto T, Matsushima M, Nakamura H, Okada M, Sameshima R, Hasegawa T (2011) Methane and soil CO2 production from current-season photosynthases in a rice paddy exposed to elevated CO2 concentration and soil temperature. Glob Change Biol 17:3327–3337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yoneyama T, Akao S (1998) Research strategy in solving problems on extending the nitrogen fixation ability to major nonleguminous plants. 2. N2 fixation in the rhizosphere and in the plant. Jpn J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 69:403–409 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  29. Yoshida T, Ancajas R (1971) Nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root zone of rice. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35:156–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kentaro Hayashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takeshi Tokida
    • 1
  • Miwa Yashima Matsushima
    • 3
  • Keisuke Ono
    • 2
  • Hirofumi Nakamura
    • 4
  • Toshihiro Hasegawa
    • 2
  1. 1.Carbon and Nutrient Cycles DivisionNational Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Agrometeorology DivisionNational Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of HorticultureChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  4. 4.Taiyo Keiki Co. Ltd.Kita-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations