Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 96, Issue 2–3, pp 149–170 | Cite as

Effect of manure quality on nitrate leaching and groundwater pollution in wetland soil under field tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill var. Heinz) rape (Brassica napus, L var. Giant)

  • Johnson MasakaEmail author
  • Menas Wuta
  • Justice Nyamangara
  • Francis Themba Mugabe
Original Article

Abstract

Recent decades have seen an increase in groundwater pollution thought to be a consequence of increasing intensity of land use, primarily through greater use of high N analysis materials as fertilizers. A two-season lysimeter experiment was carried out in a wetland in central Zimbabwe in order to determine the effect of cattle manure quality on (1) NO3–N concentration in leachate and nitrate leaching (2) dry matter accumulation and uptake of N by tomato and rape crops grown in wetland conditions. Two cattle manure quality types based on N content were used in the experiment. The manure collected from a kraal of the smallholder wetland community was classified as high quality manure (high N, 1.36 % N) while that collected from the adjacent commercial farming area was classified as low quality manure (low N, 0.51 % N). The two manure types were applied in rates of 0, 15, 30 Mg ha−1. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. When 15 and 30 Mg high and low N manure ha−1 were applied, the concentration of NO3–N in leachate exceeded the recommended 10 mg L−1 concentration in portable water by 15–104 and 53–174 % respectively. The substitution of 15 and 30 Mg of high N manure with 15 and 30 Mg ha−1 of low N manure reduced total N lost through leaching by 10–43 and 22–69 % respectively. Ground water contamination by nitrate overload can be considerably reduced by application of low N manure to vegetable crops.

Keywords

Manure Quality Nitrate Leaching Wetland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was made possible through funding by the Research Board of the Midlands State University. Most of the laboratory analysis was done in the Department of Chemical Technology of the same university.

References

  1. Aboukhaled A, Alfaro A, Smith M (1982) Lysimeters: FAO irrigation and drainage paper No. 39, FAO, Rome, p 68. http://dx.doi.wiley.com/10.1002/hyp.3360020306
  2. Addiscott TM, Benjamin N (2000) Are you taking your nitrate? Food Sci Technol Today 14:59–61Google Scholar
  3. Ajdary K, Singh DK, Singh AK, Khanna M (2007) Modelling of nitrogen leaching from experimental onion field under drip irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 89:15–28. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2006.12.014 Google Scholar
  4. Akinsanmi J, Perry GM (2002) Soil erosion and ground water pollution tradeoffs for nonirrigated farming systems. J Am Water Resour Assoc 38:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Black GG, Hartge KH (1986) Bulk density. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3 ASA Madison, WI. pp 363–375Google Scholar
  6. Bouyocous GJ (1965) Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron J 27:738–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bremner JM (1996) Nitrogen total. Methods of soil analysis: part 3. Chemical methods, (Number 5) in the Soil Science Society of America. Book series Soil Science Society of America, Inc., American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp 1085–1121Google Scholar
  8. Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen-total. Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy Series No. 9, Part 2, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, MI, pp 595–622Google Scholar
  9. Brinkman R, Blokhuis WA (1986) Classification of soils. In: Juo ASR, Lowe JA (eds) Wetland and rice in Sub-Saharan Africa. IITA, Ibadan, pp 31–42Google Scholar
  10. Campbell BM, Frost PGH, Kirchmann H, Swift MJ (1998) A survey of soil fertility management in small-scale farming systems in northeastern Zimbabwe. J Sustain Agric 11:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. European Environmental Agency (2001a) YIR99CC3 Total N2O Emissions. Retrieved from http://themes.eea.eu.int/Environment-issues/climate/indicators/nitrous-oxide-emissions/tab-factsheets-ILR. Date of access: 6 July 2005
  12. Follett RF, Delgado JA (2002) Nitrogen fate and transport in agricultural systems. J Soil Water Conserv 57:402–408Google Scholar
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization (1988) FAO/UNESCO soil map of the world, Revised Legend, with corrections and updates. World Soil Resources Report 60, FAO, Rome. Re-printed with updates as technical paper 20, ISRC. Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1997, 140 pGoogle Scholar
  14. GenStat (2003) GenStat for windows (7th Edition) Introduction. Published by VSN International, Wilkinson House, Jordan Hill Road, Oxford, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Groot JCJ, Rossing WAH, Lantinga EA (2006) Evolution of farm management, nitrogen efficiency and economic performance on Dutch dairy farms reducing external inputs. Livest Sci 100:99–110Google Scholar
  16. Hansen B, Alroe HF, Kristensen ES (2001) Approaches to assess the environmental impact of organic farming with particular regard to Denmark. Agric Ecosyst Environ 83:11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jarvis SC, Barraclough D, Unwin RL, Royle SM, Germon JS (1989) Nitrate leaching from grazed grassland and after straw incorporation in arable soils. Management systems to reduce impact of nitrates. Elsevier, London, pp 110–125Google Scholar
  18. Keeney DR, Nelson N, Stevenson FJ (1982) Nitrogen management for maximum efficiency and minimum pollution. Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Agron. Monogr. 22, ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 605–649Google Scholar
  19. Khombe CT, Dube IA, Nyathi P (1992) The effects of kraaling and stover supplementation during the dry season on body weights and manure production of Mashona steers in Zimbabwe. Afr Livest Res 1:18–23Google Scholar
  20. Kirchmann H, Bergström L (2001) Do organic farming practices reduce nitrate leaching? Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 32:997–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lekasi JK, Tanner JC, Kimani SK, Harris PJC (2002) Cattle manure quality in Marangua district, Central Kenya: effect of management practices and development of simple methods of assessment. Agric Ecosyst Environ 94:289–298Google Scholar
  22. Lowrance R, Smittle D (1988) Nitrogen cycling in a multiple crop-vegetable production system. J Environ Qual 17:158–152.  10.2134/jeq1988.0047245001700010027x Google Scholar
  23. Lovett GM, Weathers KC, Athur MA (2002) Control of nitrogen loss from forested watersheds by soil carbon:nitrogen ratio and tree species composition. Ecosystem 5:712–718Google Scholar
  24. Mafongoya PL, Giller KE, Palm CA (1998a) Decomposition and nitrogen release patterns of tree prunnings and litter. Agrofor Syst 38:77–97. doi: 10.1023/A:1005978101429 Google Scholar
  25. Mtambanengwe F, Chivaura-Mususa C, Kirchmann H (1998) Assessment of plant litter quality related short-term carbon and nitrogen mineralisation in soil. In: Woomer PL, Swift MJ (eds) The biological management of tropical soil fertility. Wiley-Sayce Publication, New York, pp 81–116Google Scholar
  26. Murwira HK (1995) Ammonia losses from Zimbabwean cattle manure before and after incorporation into soil. Tropic Agric 72:269–273Google Scholar
  27. Mugwira LM, Mukurumbira LM (1984) Comparative effectiveness of manures from communal areas and commercial feedlots as plant nutrient sources. Zimb J Agric Res 81:241–250Google Scholar
  28. Mugwira LM, Murwira HK (1997) Use of cattle manure to improve soil fertility in Zimbabwe: past and current research and future research needs. Soil Fertility Network for maize-based cropping systems in Malawi and Zimbabwe, Working paper 2, pp 1–33 Google Scholar
  29. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total C, organic C and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy series No. 9, Part 2, pp 539–579Google Scholar
  30. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1986) Total C, organic C and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy series No. 9, Part 2, pp 539–579Google Scholar
  31. Nicholson FA, Chambers BJ, Mills AR, Strachan PJ (1997) Effects of repeated straw incorporation on crop fertilizer nitrogen requirements, soil mineral nitrogen and nitrate leaching losses. Soil Use Manag 13:136–142. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.1997.tb00574.x
  32. Nyamapfene KW (1991) Soils of Zimbabwe. Nehanda Publishers (Pvt) Ltd, Harare, pp 75–79Google Scholar
  33. Ondersteijn CJM, Belman ACG, Daatselaar CHG, Giesen GWJ, Huirne RBM (2002) The Dutch mineral accounting system and the European nitrate directive: implications of N and P management and farm performance. Agric Ecosyst Environ 92:283–296Google Scholar
  34. Reddy DD, Rao AS, Rupa TR (2000) Effects of continuous use of cattle manure and fertilizer phosphorus on crop yields and soil organic phosphorus in a vertisol. Bioresour Tech 75:113–118Google Scholar
  35. Reuter D (2000) Nutrient balance in regional farming systems. Fertilizer in focus. In: Proceedings of the conference, 2000 May 28–29. Industry Federation of Australia Inc., Australia, pp 57–63Google Scholar
  36. Robertson GP, Wedin D, Groffman PM, Blair JM, Holland EA, Nadelhoffer KJ, Haris D (1999) Soil carbon and nitrogen availability: nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and soil respiration potentials. Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 258–271. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-1591-2
  37. Salo T, Turtola E (2006) Nitrogen balance as an indicator of nitrogen leaching in Finland. Agric Ecosyst Environ 113:98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sankaram A (1996) Soil fertility management for reconciling sustainability with productivity. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 44:593–600Google Scholar
  39. Scholberg J, McNeal BL, Jones JW, Boote KJ, Stanley CD, Obreza TA (2000) Growth and canopy characteristics of field-grown tomato. Agron J 92:152–159Google Scholar
  40. Silva RG, Holub SM, Jorgensen EE, Ashanuzzaman ANM (2005) Indicators of nitrate leaching loss under different land use of clayey and sandy soils in southern Oklahoma. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:346–359. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2004.12.018
  41. Soil Survey Staff (1992) Keys to the soil taxonomy, fifth edition, Blacksbury, Virginia. SMSS technical monograph number 19, 541 pGoogle Scholar
  42. Stevenson FJ (1982) Nitrogen-organic forms. Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy No. 9, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 625–641Google Scholar
  43. Taylor BR, Parkinson D, Parsons WF (1989) Nitrogen and lignin content as predictors of litter decay rates: a microcosm test. Ecology 70:97–104Google Scholar
  44. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1990) National pesticide survey. Summary results of EPA’s national survey of pesticide in drinking water well. Draft 31 October 1990. USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  45. Venterea RT, Rolston DE (2000) Mechanisms and kinetics of nitric and nitrous oxide production during nitrification in agricultural soil. Global Change Biol 6:303–316. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.00309.x
  46. Vincent V, Thomas RG (1960) An Agricultural Survey of Southern Rhodesia. Part I agro-ecological survey. Government Printers, SalisburyGoogle Scholar
  47. Vitten AJA, Smith KA (1993) Nitrogen cycling in the agricultural soils. In: Burt TP, Heathwaite AL, Trudgill ST (eds) Nitrate: processes, patterns and management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 39–73Google Scholar
  48. Vogel H (1992) Morphological and hydrological characteristics of gleyic granitic soils and their potential for crop production. A case study from Zimbabwe. Soil Technol 5:303–317Google Scholar
  49. Vogeler I, Blard A, Bolan N (2007) Modelling DCD effect on nitrate leaching under controlled conditions. Aust J Soil Res 45:310–317Google Scholar
  50. Yates TT, Si BC, Farrell RE, Pennock DJ (2006) Probability distribution and spatial dependence of nitrous oxide emission: temporal change in hummocky terrain. SSSA 70:753–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johnson Masaka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Menas Wuta
    • 2
  • Justice Nyamangara
    • 3
  • Francis Themba Mugabe
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Land and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Natural Resources Management and AgricultureMidlands State UniversityGweruZimbabwe
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of ZimbabweHarareZimbabwe
  3. 3.Matopos Research StationInternational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid TropicsBulawayoZimbabwe
  4. 4.Directorate of Research and Resource MobilisationChinhoyi University of TechnologyChinhoyiZimbabwe

Personalised recommendations