Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 89, Issue 2, pp 229–255 | Cite as

Agronomic and environmental aspects of phosphate fertilizers varying in source and solubility: an update review

  • S. H. Chien
  • L. I. Prochnow
  • S. Tu
  • C. S. Snyder
Original Article


This review discusses and summarizes the latest reports regarding the agronomic utilization and potential environmental effects of different types of phosphate (P) fertilizers that vary in solubility. The agronomic effectiveness of P fertilizer can be influenced by the following factors: (1) water and citrate solubility; (2) chemical composition of solid water-soluble P (WSP) fertilizers; (3) fluid and solid forms of WSP fertilizers; and (4) chemical reactions of P fertilizers in soils. Non-conventional P fertilizers are compared with WSP fertilizers in terms of P use efficiency in crop production. Non-conventional P fertilizers include directly applied phosphate rock (PR), partially acidulated PR (PAPR), and compacted mixtures of PR and WSP. The potential impacts of the use of P fertilizers from both conventional (fully acidulated) and non-conventional sources are discussed in terms of (1) contamination of soils and plants with toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), and (2) the contribution of P runoff to eutrophication. Best practices of integrated nutrient management should be implemented when applying P fertilizers to different cropping systems. The ideal management system will use appropriate sources, application rates, timing, and placement in consideration of soil properties. The goal of P fertilizer use should be to optimize crop production without causing environmental problems.


Phosphate fertilizers Agronomic effectiveness Cadmium P runoff Eutrophication 


  1. Agbenin JO (2004) Free energy and kinetics of dissolution of Sokoto rock phosphate and the implication for replenishing phosphorus in the savanna soil of Nigeria. Eur J Soil Sci 55:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agyin-Birikorang S, Abekoe MK, Oladeji OO (2007) Enhancing the agronomic effectiveness of natural phosphate rock with poultry manure: a way forward to sustainable crop production. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 79:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akintokun OO, Adetunji MT, Akintokun PO (2003) Phosphorus availability to soybean from an indigenous phosphate rock sample in soils from southern Nigeria. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 65:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander RB, Smith R, Schwarz G, Boyer E, Nolan J, Brakebill J (2008) Differences in phosphorous and nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River Basin. Environ Sci Technol 42(3):822–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alloway BJ, Steinnes E (1999) Anthropogenic additions of cadmium to soils. In: McLaughlin MJ, Singh BR (eds) Cadmium in soils and plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 97–123Google Scholar
  6. AOAC (1999) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn, 5th revision, vol I. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Aye TM, Hedeley MJ, Loganathan P, Lefroy RDB, Bolan NS (2009) Effect of organic and inorganic phosphate fertilizers and their combination on maize yield and phosphorus availability in a Yellow Earth in Myanmar. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 83:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Babana AH, Antoun H (2005) Biological system for improving the availability of Tilemsi phosphate rock for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated in Mali. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 72:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babana AH, Antoun H (2006) Effect of Tilemsi phosphate rock-solubilizing microorganisms on phosphorus uptake and yield of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Mali. Plant Soil 287:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker JL, Laflen JM (1983) Water quality consequences of conservation tillage. J Soil Water Conserv 38(3):186–193Google Scholar
  11. Bationo A, Ayuk E, Mokwunye AU (1995) Long-term evaluation of alternative phosphorus fertilizers for pear millet production on the sandy Sahelian soils of West Africa semi-arid tropics. In: Gerner H, Mokwunye AU (eds) Use of phosphate rock for sustainable agriculture in West Africa. International Fertilizer Development Center Muscle Shoals, Alabama, pp 42–53Google Scholar
  12. Beegle D (2005) Assessing soil phosphorus for crop production by soil testing. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment, chap 5. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 123–144Google Scholar
  13. Begum M, Narayanasamy G, Biswas DR (2004) Phosphorus supplying capacity of phosphate rocks as influenced by compaction with water-soluble P fertilizers. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 68:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Black CA (1968) Soil-plant relationships. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Naidu R (2003) Role of phosphorus in immobilization and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil-plant system. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 177:1–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Naidu R, Mora ML, Santiagio M (2005) Phosphorus-trace interactions in soil-plant systems. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. Agronomy Monograph no 46, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, pp 317–352Google Scholar
  17. Bosso ST, Enzweiler J, Angelica RS (2008) Lead bioaccessibility in soil and mine wastes after immobilization with phosphate. Water Air Soil Pollut 195:257–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buda AR, Kleinman PJA, Srinivasan MS, Bryant RB, Feyereisen GW (2009) Effects of hydrolygy and field management on phosphorus transport in surface runoff. J Environ Qual 38:2273–2284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bundy LG, Andraski TW, Powell JM (2001) Management practice effects on phosphorus losses in runoff in corn production systems. J Environ Qual 30:1822–1828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bush RT, Austin NR (2001) Timing of phosphorus fertilizer application within an irrigation cycle for perennial pasture. J Environ Qual 30:939–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cao ZH, Zhang HC (2004) Phosphorus losses to water from lowland rice fields under rice-wheat double cropping system in the Tai Lake region. Environ Geochem Health 26:229–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cao X, Ma LQ, Chen SP, Harris WG (2002) Phosphate-induced metal immobilization in a contaminated site. Environ Pollut 122:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cao ZH, Lin XG, Yang LZ, Hu ZY, Dong YH, Yin R (2005) Ecological function of “paddy field ring” to urban and rural environment I: characteristics of soil P losses from paddy fields to water bodies with runoff. Acta Ped Sinica 42:799–804 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Casanova E, Salas AM, Toro M (2002) Evaluating the effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers in some Venezuelan soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen M, Ma LQ, Singh SP, Cao X, Melamed R (2003) Field demonstration of in situ immobilization of soil Pb using P ammendments. Adv Environ Res 8:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chien SH (1993) Solubility assessment for fertilizer containing phosphate rock. Fert Res 35:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chien SH (2003a) Factors affecting the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock: a general review. In: Rajan SSS, Chien SH (eds) Direct application of phosphate rock and related appropriate technology—latest development and practical experiences. Special Publication SP-37, IFDC, Muscle Shoals, AL, USA, pp 50–77Google Scholar
  28. Chien SH (2003b) IFDC’s evaluation of modified phosphate rock products. In: Rajan SSS, Chien SH (eds) Direct application of phosphate rock and related appropriate technology—latest development and practical experiences. Special Publication SP-37, IFDC, Muscle Shoals, AL, USA, pp 63–77Google Scholar
  29. Chien SH (2004a) Legislation and quality control of phosphate rocks for direct application. In: Zapata F, Roy RN (ed) Use of phosphate rock for sustainable agriculture. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 13, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp 117–123Google Scholar
  30. Chien SH (2004b) Secondary nutrients, micronutrients, liming effect and hazardous elements associated with phosphate rock use. In: Zapata F, Roy RN (ed) Use of phosphate rock for sustainable agriculture. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 13, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp 77–83Google Scholar
  31. Chien SH, Black CA (1976) Free energy of formation of carbonate apatites in some phosphate rocks. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chien SH, Friesen DK (1992) Phosphate rock for direct application. In: Sikora FJ (ed) Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research. TVA/NFERC Bulletin Y-224, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, pp 47–52Google Scholar
  33. Chien SH, Hammond LL (1978) A comparison of various laboratory methods for predicting the agronomic potential of phosphate rock for direct application. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:935–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chien SH, Hammond LL (1991) Calcination effect on the agronomic effectiveness of apatitiv North Carolina phosphate rock. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:1758–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chien SH, Carmona G, Henao J, Prochnow LI (2003a) Evaluation of rape response to different sources of phosphate rock in an alkaline soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:1825–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chien SH, Carmona G, Prochnow LI, Austin ER (2003b) A comparison of cadmium availability from granulated and bulk-blended phosphate with potassium fertilizers. J Environ Qual 32:1911–1914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chien SH, Prochnow LI, Cantarella H (2009) Recent developments of fertilizer production and use to increase nutrient efficiency and minimize environmental impacts. Adv Agron 102:261–316Google Scholar
  38. Daverede IC, Kravchenko AN, Hoeft RG, Nafziger ED, Bullock DG, Warren JJ, Gonzini LC (2003) Phosphorus runoff: effect of tillage and soil phosphorus levels. J Environ Qual 32:1436–1444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Daverede IC, Kravchenko AN, Hoeft RG, Nafziger ED, Bullock DG, Warren JJ, Gonzini LC (2004) Phosphorus runoff from incorporated and surface-applied liquid swine manure and phosphorus fertilizer. J Environ Qual 33:1535–1544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davister A (1998) Fertilizer derived from phosphoric acid. In: Fertilizer mannual. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 355–383Google Scholar
  41. Du C, Zhou J, Shaviv A (2006) Release characteristics of nutrients from polymer-coated compound controlled release fertilizers. J Polym Environ 14:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Duan YH, Zhang NM, Hong B, Chen JJ (2005) Factors influencing the N and P loss from farmland runoff in Dianchi watershed. Chin J Eco-Agric 13:116–118 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Engelstad OP, Terman GL (1980) Agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers. In: Khasawneh FE, Sample EC, Kamprath EJ (eds) The role of phosphorus in agriculture. ASA, Madison, pp 311–322Google Scholar
  44. European Community (2004) Commission Regulation (EC) no 2076/2004 of 3 December 2004. Official Journal of the European Union L359/25, 4 December Cd/kg2004Google Scholar
  45. Evans M (2008) A look at the rise of fluid fertilizers in Australia. Fluid J 16:20–22Google Scholar
  46. Evans J, Price A (2009) Influence of rates of reactive phosphate rock and sulfur on potentially available phosphorus in organically managed soils in the south-eastern near-Mediterranean cropping region of Australia. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 84:105–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Evans J, McDonald L, Price A (2006) Application of reactive phosphate rock and sulfur fertilizers to enhance the availability of soil phosphate in organic farming. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 75:233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Falls JH (1991) Comparison and review of three available P2O5 methods for diammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate. Fert Res 28:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fang F, Brezonik PL, Mulla DJ, Hatch LK (2005) Characterization of soil algal bioavailable phosphorus in the Minnesota River Basin. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1016–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. FAO (2004) Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture. Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin no 13, FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  51. Fixen PE, Grove JH (1990) Testing soils for phosphorus. In: Westerman RL (ed) Soil testing and plant analysis, 3rd edn, chap 7. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 141–180Google Scholar
  52. Foy RH (2005) The return of the phosphorus paradigm: Agricultural phosphorus and eutrophification. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (ed) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. Agronomy Monograph no 46, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, pp 911–939Google Scholar
  53. Francisco EAB, Chien SH, Prochnow LI, Austin ER, Toledo MCM, Taylor RW (2008) Characterization and greenhouse evaluation of Brazilian calcined nonapatite phosphate rocks for rice. Agron J 100:819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gatiboni LC, Kaminski J, Rheinheimer DS, Bruentto G (2003) Superphosphate and rock phosphates as phosphorus sources for grass-clover pasture on a limed acid soil in southern Brazil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:2503–2514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grant CA, Bailey LD, McLaughlin MJ, Singh BR (1999) Management factors which influence cadmium concentrations in crops. In: McLaughlin MJ, Singh BR (eds) Cadmium in soils and plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 151–198Google Scholar
  56. Habib L, Chien SH, Carmona G, Henao J (1999) Rape response to a Syrian phosphate rock and its mixture with triple superphosphate on a limed alkaline soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Harrod TR, Theurer FD (2002) Sediment. In: Haygarth PM, Javis SC (eds) Agriculture, hydrology and water quality. CABI International, Willingford, pp 155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hart MR, Quin B, Nguyen ML (2004) Phosphorus runoff from agricultural land and direct fertilizer effects: a review. J Environ Qual 33:1954–1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Haygarth PM, Hepworth L, Jarvis SC (1998) Forms of phosphorus transfer in hydrological pathways from soil under grazed grassland. Eur J Soil Sci 49:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Heathwaite AL, Griffiths P, Parkinson RJ (1998) Nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff from grassland with buffer strips following application of fertilizers and manures. Soil Use Manag 14:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hedley M, McLaughlin M (2005) Reactions of phosphate fertilizers and by-products in soils. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (ed) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. Agronomy Monograph no 46, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA, pp 181–252Google Scholar
  62. Hettiarachchi GM, Lombi E, McLaughlin MJ, Chittleborough D, Self P (2006) Density change around phosphorus granules and fluid bands in a calcareous soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:960–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Holloway R, Frischke B, Frischke A, Brace D, Lombi E, McLaughlin MJ, Armstrong R (2006) Fluids excel over granular on Australian calcareous soils. Fluid J 14:14–16Google Scholar
  64. Hooda PS, Rendall AR, Edwards AC, Withers PJA, Aiten MN, Truesdale VW (2000) Relating soil phosphorus indices to potential phosphorus release to water. J Environ Qual 29:1166–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Howard DD, Essington EE, Tyler DD (1999) Vertical phosphorus and potassium stratification in no-till cotton soil. Agron J 91:266–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Huang YF, Zhang LP, Hong HS, Chen NW, Huang JL, Zeng Y (2004) An experimental research on soil erosion and nitrogen, phosphorus losses under different vegetation covers. J Agro-Environ Sci 23:735–739 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  67. IAEA (2002a) Assessment of soil phosphorus status and management of phosphate fertilizers to optimize crop production. IAEA-TECHDOC-1272, IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  68. IAEA (2002b) Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. IAEA-TECHDO-1159, IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  69. IAEA (2006) Management practices for improving sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils. STI/PUB/1285, IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  70. IFDC (2003) Direct application of phosphate rock and related appropriate technology—latest developments and practical experiences. Special Publication IFDC-SP-37. IFDC, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USAGoogle Scholar
  71. Iretskaya SI, Chien SH (1999) Comparison of cadmium uptake by five different food grain crops grown on three soils of varying pH. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30:441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jiao SJ, Hu XM, Pan GX, Zhou HJ, Xu XD (2007) Effects of fertilization on nitrogen and phosphorus run-off loss from Qingzini paddy soil in Taihu Lake region during rice growth season. Chin J Ecol 26:495–500 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  73. Johnsonton AE, Richards IR (2003) Effectiveness of different precipitated phosphates as phosphorus sources for plants. Soil Use Manag 19:45–49Google Scholar
  74. Johnston AE, Richards IR (2003) Effectiveness of the water-insoluble component of triple superphosphate for yield and phosphorus uptake by plants. J Agric Sci 140:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kimmell RJ, Pierzynski GM, Janssen KA, Barn PL (2001) Effects of tillage and phosphorus placement on phosphorus runoff losses in a grain sorghum–soybean rotation. J Environ Qual 30:1324–1330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kleinman PJA, Sharpley AN, Moyer BG, Elwinger GF (2002) Effect of mineral and manure phosphorus sources on runoff phosphorus. J Environ Qual 31:2026–2033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kovar J (2006) Fall surface-applied fluid P movement into soil limits potential loss to erosion. Fluid J 14:14–16Google Scholar
  78. Kuo S, Ortiz-Escobar ME, Hue NV, Hummel RL (2004) Composting and compost utilization for agronomic and container crops. Recent Res Devel Environ Biol 1:451–513Google Scholar
  79. Lehr JR, McClellan GH (1972) A revised laboratory reactivity scale for evaluating phosphate rocks for direct application. Bull Y-43, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle ShoalsGoogle Scholar
  80. Lim HH, Gilkes RJ (2001) Beneficiation of apatite rock phosphates by calcination: adverse effects on chemical properties and fertilizer effectiveness. Aust J Soil Res 39:397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lim HH, Gilkes RJ, McCormick PG (2003) Beneficiation of rock phosphate fertilizers by mechano-milling. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 67:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lin CW, Lian J, Fang HH (2005) Soil lead immobilization using phosphate rock. Water Air Soil Pollut 161:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Loganathan P, Hedeley MJ, Bretherton MR, Rowarth JS (2004) Acounting for particle movement when assessing the dissolution of slow release fertilizers in field soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 70:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Loganathan P, Hedeley MJ, Bolan NS, Currie LD (2005) Field evaluation of the liming value of two phosphate rocks and their partially acidulated after 16 years of annual application to grazed pasture. Nutr Cycling Agroecosyst 72:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lombi E, McLaughlin MJ, Johnson C, Armstrong RD, Holloway RE (2004) Mobility and lability of phosphorus from granular and fluid monoammonium phosphate differs in a calcareous soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:682–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lu DQ, Chien SH, Henao J, Sompongse D (1987) Evaluation of short-term efficiency of diammonium phosphate versus urea plus single superphosphate on a calcareous soil. Agron J 79:896–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ma LQ, Rao GN (1999) Aqueous Pb reduction in Pb-contaminated soils by Florida phosphate rocks. Water Air Soil Pollut 110:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Maguire RO, Sims JT (2002) Measuring agronomic and environmental soil phosphorus saturation and predicting phosphorus leaching with Mehlich 3. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:2033–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Maguire RO, Chardon WJ, Simard RS (2005) Assessing potential environmental impacts of soil phosphorus by soil testing. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (ed) Phosphorus: Agriculture and the environment. Agronomy Monograph no 46, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, pp 145–180Google Scholar
  91. Massey MS, Davis JG, Ippolito JA, Sheffield RE (2009) Effectiveness of recovered magnesium phosphates as fertilizers in neutral and slightly alkaline soils. Agron J 101:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McLaughlin MJ, Maier NA, Rayment GE, Sparrow LA, Berg G, McKay A, Milham P, Merry RH, Smart MK (1997) Cadmium in Australian potato tubers and soils. J Environ Qual 26:1644–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McLay CD, Rajan SSS, Liu Q (2000) Agronomic effectiveness of partially acidulated phosphate rock fertilizers in an allophonic soil at near-neutral pH. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:423–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mendoza R, Lamas MDC, Garcia I (2009) How do soil P tests, plant yield and P aqcquisition by Lotus tenuis plants reflect the availability of added P from different phosphate sources. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 85:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Menon RG, Chien SH (1996) Compaction of phosphate rocks with soluble phosphate—An alternative technology to partially acidulation of phosphate rocks with low reactivity: IFDC’s experience. IFDC Technical Bulletin T-44, International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), Muscle Shoals, AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  96. Meyers RG, Pierzynski GM (2009) Using the iron oxide method to estimate bioavailable phosphorus in runoff. In: Kovar JL, Pierzynski GM (eds) Methods of phosphorus analysis for soils, sediments, residuals, and waters. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin no 408, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, pp 118–121Google Scholar
  97. Miretzky P, Fernandez A (2009) Phosphates for Pb immobilization in soils: A review. In: Springer book series: sustainable agriculture reviews, vol 1: organic farming, pest control and remediation of soil pollutants. Springer, Netherlands, pp 351–370Google Scholar
  98. Morvedt JJ (2005) Heavy metals in fertilizers: their effects on soil and plant health. The International Fertilizer Society, Proceedings, no 575, York, UKGoogle Scholar
  99. Msolla MM, Semoka JMR, Borggaard OK (2005) Hard Minjingu phosphate rock: an alternative P source for maize production on acid soils in Tanzania. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 72:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mutuo PK, Smithson PC, Buresh RJ, Okalebo RJ (1999) Comparison of phosphate rock and triple superphosphate on a phosphorus-deficient Kenyan soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30:1091–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nachimuthu G, Guppy C, Kristiansen P, Lockwood P (2009) Isotopic tracing of phosphorus uptake in corn from 33P labeled legume residues and 32P labeled fertilizers applied to a sandy loam soil. Plant Soil 314:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nair CS, Sreedaya GS, Sarada S, Bindhu JS, Vyas NG (2003) Eficiency of Rajiphos compacted with monoammonium phosphate or single superphosphate for growth and yield of rice. J Trop Agric 41:45–46Google Scholar
  103. Nash DM, Hannah M, Clemow L, Halliwell D, Chapman D (2003) A laboratory study of phosphorus mobilization from commercial fertilizers. Aust J Soil Res 41:1201–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nash DM, Hannah M, Clemow L, Halliwell D, Webb B, Chapman D (2004) A field study of phosphorus mobilization from commercial fertilizers. Aust J Soil Res 42:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nelson N, Mikkelsen R (2008) Meeting the phosphorus requirement on organic farms. Better Crops 92(1):12–14Google Scholar
  106. Nemeth T, Magyar M, Csatho P, Osztoics E, Baczo G, Hollo S, Nemeth I (2002) Long-term evaluation of phosphate rock and superphosphate use strategies in acid soils of Hungary: two comparative field trials. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ottman MJ, Thompson TL, Doerger TA (2006) Alfalfa yield and soil phosphorus increased with topdressed granular compared with fluid fluid phosphorus fertilizer. Agron J 98:899–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pauly DG, Malhi SS, Nyborg M (2002) Controlled-release fertilizer concept evaluation using growth and P uptake of barley from three soils in greenhouse. Can J Soil Sci 82:201–210Google Scholar
  109. Pote DH, Daniel TC, Sharpley AN, Moore PA Jr, Edwards DR, Nichols DJ (1996) Relating extractable soil phosphorus to phosphorus losses in runoff. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:855–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pote DH, Daniel TC, Nichols DJ, Sharpley AN, Moore PA Jr, Miller DM, Edwards DR (1999) Relationship between phosphorus levels in three ultisols and phosphorus concentrations in runoff. J Environ Qual 28:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Preedy N, McTiernan K, Matthews R, Heathwaite L, Haygarth P (2001) Rapid incidental phosphorus transfers from grassland. J Environ Qual 30:2105–2112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Prochnow LI, Dillard EF, Austin ER, Chien SH, Calvo CG (2003a) Modal analysis to estimate the composition of single superphosphates. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:2131–2147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Prochnow LI, Chien SH, Taylor RW, Carmona G, Henao J, Dillard EF (2003b) Characterization and agronomic evaluation of single superphosphates varying in iron phosphate impurities. Agron J 95:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Prochnow LI, Chien SH, Dillard EF, Austin ER, Carmona G, Henao J, Singh U (2003c) Synthesis, characterization, and agronomic evaluation of iron phosphate impurities in single superphosphates. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1551–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Prochnow LI, Chien SH, Carmona G, Henao J (2004) Greenhouse evaluation of two phosphorus sources produced from a Brazilian phosphate rock. Agron J 96:761–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Prochnow LI, Chien SH, Carmona G, Dillard EF, Henao J, Austin ER (2008) Plant availability of phosphorus in four superphosphate fertilizers varying in water-insoluble phosphate compounds. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:462–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rajan SSS (2002) Comparison of phosphate fertilizers for pasture and their effect on soil solution phosphate. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 33:2227–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rivaie AA, Loganathan P, Graham JD, Tillman RW, Payn TW (2008) Effect of phosphate rock and triple superphosphate on soil phosphorus fractions and their plant-availability and downward movement in two volcanic ash soils under Pinus radiate plantations in New Zealand. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 82:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rodriguez R, Herrera J (2002) Field evaluation of partially acidulated phosphate rocks in a Ferralsol from Cuba. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:P21–P26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Satter MA, Hanafi MM, Mahmud TMM, Azizah H (2006) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphate rock on uptake of major nutrients by Acacia mangium seedlings on degraded soil. Biol Ferti Soils 42:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sharma SN, Prasad R, Shivay YS, Dwivedi MK, Kumar S, Davari MR, Ram M, Kumar D (2010) Relative efficiency of diammonium phosphate and mussoorie phosphate rock on productivity and phosphorus balance in a rice-rapeseed-mungbean cropping system. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 86:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sharpley AN (1993) An innovative approach to estimate bioavailable phosphorus in agricultural runoff using iron oxide-impregnated paper. J Environ Qual 22:597–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sharpley AN, Smith SJ, Jones OK, Berg WA, Coleman GA (1992) The transport of bioavailable phosphorus in agricultural runoff. J Environ Qual 21:30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sharpley AN, Foy R, Withers P (2000) Practical and innovative measures for control of agricultural phosphorus losses to water: an overview. J Environ Qual 29:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sharpley AN, Daniel T, Sims T, Lemunyon J, Stevens R, Parry R (2003) Agricultural phosphorus and eutrophication. ARS-149, USDA-ARS, BeltsvilleGoogle Scholar
  126. Shaviv A (2000) Advances in controlled release of fertilizers. Adv Agron 71:1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shigaki F, Sharpley A, Prochnow LI (2006) Source-related transport of phosphorus in surface runoff. J Environ Qual 35:2229–2235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shigaki F, Sharpley A, Prochnow LI (2007) Rainfall intensity and phosphorus source effects on phosphorus transport in surface runoff from soil trays. Sci Total Environ 373:334–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sikora FJ (2002) Evaluating and quantifying the liming potential of phosphate rocks. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Smalberger SA, Singh U, Chien SH, Henao J, Wilkens PW (2006) Development and validation of a phosphate rock decision support system. Agron J 98:471–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Smithson P, Bashir J, Delve R, van Straaten P, Buresh R (2003) Eastern African phosphate resources and their agronomic performance. In: Rajan SSS, Chien SH (eds) Direct application of phosphate rock and related appropriate technology—Latest development and practical experiences. Special Publication SP-37, IFDC, Muscle Shoals, pp 123–133Google Scholar
  132. Sokoto AL, Singh A (2008) Yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate, L Walp) as influenced by Sokoto phosphate rock and placement methods in semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 81:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Somado EA, Sahrawat KL, Kuehne RF (2006) Rock phosphate–P enhances biomass and nitrogen accumulation by legume in upland crop production systems in humid West Africa. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 43:124–130Google Scholar
  134. Song ZF, Wang KQ, Sun XL, He JQ, Li HB, Yi JC (2008) Phosphorous and nitrogen loss characteristics with runoff on different lands use pattern in small watersheds in Jianshan River, Chengjiang. Res Environ Sci 21:109–113Google Scholar
  135. Syers JK, Johnston AE, Curtin D (2008) Efficiency of soil and fertilizer phosphorus use. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 18, FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  136. Szilas C, Semoka JMR, Borggaard OK (2007a) Can local Minjingu phosphate rock replace superphosphate on acid soils in Tanzania? Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 77:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Szilas C, Semoka JMR, Borggaard OK (2007b) Establishment of an agronomic database for Minjingu phosphate rock and examples of its potential use. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 78:225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tabbara H (2003) Phosphorus loss to runoff water twenty-four hours after application of liquid swine manure or fertilizer. J Environ Qual 32:1044–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Terman GL (1971) Ohosphate fertilizer sources: agronomic effectiveness in relation to chemical and physical properties. Proc Fert Soc 123:1–39Google Scholar
  140. Torbert HA, Potter KN, Hoffman DW, Gerik TJ, Richardson CW (1999) Surface residue and soil moisture affect fertilizer loss in simulated runoff on a heavy clay soil. Agron J 91:606–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Truong B (2004) Evaluation of phosphate rocks for direct application. In: Zapata F, Roy RN (ed) Use of phosphate rock for sustainable agriculture. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 13, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp 27–40Google Scholar
  142. Turtola E, Yli-halla M (1999) Fate of phosphorus applied in slurry and mineral fertilizer: accumulation in soil and release to surface runoff water. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 55:156–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Udawatta RP, Motavalli PP, Garretta HE (2004) Phosphorus loss and runoff characteristics in three adjacent agricultural watersheds with clay pan soils. J Environ Qual 33:1709–1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2007) Electronic code of federal regulations. Title 40: protection of environment, Part 503—standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Part B-Land Application. Available at:$FILE/503-032007.pdf
  145. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2009) National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress, 2004 Reporting Cycle EPA 841-R-08-00. Available at:
  146. Wakefield Z (1980) Distribution of cadmium and selected heavy metals in phosphate fertilizer processing. Bull Y-159, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle ShoalsGoogle Scholar
  147. Westermann DT, Bjorneberg DL, Aase JK, Robbins CW (2001) Phosphorus losses in furrow irrigation runoff. J Environ Qual 30:1009–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Withers PJA, Nash D, Laboski CAM (2005) Environmental management of phosphorus fertilizers. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (ed) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. Agronomy Monograph no 46, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, pp 782–827Google Scholar
  149. Wu XY, Zhang LP, Ni HB, Zhu XM (2008) Research on characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus loss under different coverage in Qingshan Lake Valley. J Soil Water Conserv 22:56–59Google Scholar
  150. Xia TX, Li WC, Pan JZ (2008) Risk assessment on soil environment quality and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus for the gravel soils under different farming practices in the watershed of Lake Fuxian. J Lake Sci 20:110–116Google Scholar
  151. Xiong LM, Zhou ZG, Fardeau JC, Feng GL, Lu RK (2002) Isotopic assessment of soil phosphorus fertility and evaluation of rock phosphates as phosphorus sources for plants in subtropical China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Xu QG, Liu HL, Shen ZY, Xi BD (2007) Characteristics on nitrogen and phosphorus losses in the typical small watershed of the Three Georges Reservoir area. Acta Sci Circumstantiae 27:326–331 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  153. Yoon JK, Cao X, Ma LQ (2007) Application methods after phosphorus-induced lead immobilization from a contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 36:373–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zeng A, Hao FH, Zhang JX, Ouyang W, Zhang MX (2008) Nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by the summer and fall irrigation runoff in the agricultural irrigation area in Inner Mongolia. Acta Sci Circumstantiae 28:838–844 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  155. Zhang HC, Cao ZH, Shen QR, Wong MH (2003) Effect of phosphate fertilizer application on phosphorus (P) losses from paddy soils in Tai Lake Region: I effect of phosphate fertilizer rate on P losses from paddy soil. Chemosph 50:695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhang HC, Cao FL, Fang SZ, Wang GP, Zhang HG, Cao ZH (2005) Effects of agricultural production on phosphorus losses from paddy soils: a case study in the Tai Lake region of China. Wetl Ecol Manag 13:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhang ZJ, Zhang JY, He R, Wang ZD, Zhu YM (2007) Phosphorus interception in floodwater of paddy field during the rice-growing season in Tai Lake Basin. Environ Pollut 145:425–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhu JP, Chang ZZ, Zheng JC, Chen LG (2007) Analyses on nitrogen and phosphorus losses and economic returns of major cropping systems in Tai Lake region. Jiangsu Agri Sci 2007(3):612–613 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  159. Zoysa AKN, Loganathan P, Hedley MJ (1999) Phosphorus utilization efficiency and depletion of phoshate fractions in the rhizosphere of three tea (Camellia sinensis L.) clones. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 53:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Chien
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. I. Prochnow
    • 3
  • S. Tu
    • 4
  • C. S. Snyder
    • 5
  1. 1.Formerly affiliated with IFDCMuscle ShoalsUSA
  2. 2.FlorenceUSA
  3. 3.IPNI Brazil ProgramPiracicabaBrazil
  4. 4.IPNI Southwest China RegionChengduChina
  5. 5.IPNI Nitrogen ProgramConwayUSA

Personalised recommendations