Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 135–142 | Cite as

Short-term fates of high sulfur inputs in Northern California vineyard soils

  • Eve-Lyn S. Hinckley
  • Scott Fendorf
  • Pamela Matson
Article

Abstract

The widespread application of elemental sulfur (S0) to vineyards may have ecosystem effects at multiple scales. We evaluated the short-term fates of applied S0 in a Napa Valley vineyard; we determined changes in soil sulfur (S) speciation (measured by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy), soil pH, extractable sulfate (SO4 2−), and total S to evaluate changes in acidity and soil S within the vineyard over time. Surface soil samples were collected immediately prior to and following two applications of S0 (6.7 kg S0 ha−1), with weekly collections in the 2 weeks between applications and following the last application. XANES spectra indicated that the majority of soil S persists in the +6 oxidation state and that S0 oxidizes within 7 days following application. Soil pH and extractable SO4 2− measurements taken at 30 min after S0 application revealed generation of acidity and an increase in extractable SO4 2−, but by 12 days after application, soil pH increased to approximately pre-application levels. These data suggest that the major consequence of reactive S applications in vineyards may be the accumulation of soil SO4 2− and organic S during the growing season, which can be mobilized during storm events during the dormant (wet) season. In spatially-extensive winegrowing regions where these applications are made by hundreds of individual farmers each year, it will be important to understand the long-term implications of this perturbation to the regional S cycle.

Keywords

Elemental sulfur Fungicide Napa Valley Sulfur cycling Vineyards X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by an EPA-STAR Fellowship and a Geological Society of America grant to E. Hinckley, and funds from Stanford University to P. Matson. We thank A. Anderson and B. Falk at Cain Vineyards and S.L. Perry at McCormick Ranch for their generosity in providing site access, and the students and instructors of Acorn Soupe for assisting with field collections. Thanks to B. Kocar and M. Polizzotto for assistance with XANES data processing and interpretation, and C. Kendall and M. Rollog at the USGS (Menlo Park, CA) for total S analysis of soils. K. Loague, P. Vitousek, and two anonymous reviewers provided comments to improve this manuscript.

References

  1. Bates AL, Orem WH, Harvey JW, Spiker EC (2002) Tracing sources of sulfur in the Florida Everglades. J Environ Qual 31:287–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boswell CC, Friesen DK (1993) Elemental sulfur fertilizers and their use on crops and pastures. Fert Res 35:127–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. California Department of Pesticide Regulation (2008) http://calpip.cdpr.ca.gov/cfdocs/calpip/prod/main.cfm. Accessed 12 December 2008
  4. Dijksterhuis GH, Oenema O (1990) Studies on the effectiveness of various sulfur fertilizers under controlled conditions. Fert Res 22:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hinckley ES, Kendall C, Loague K (2008) Not all water becomes wine: sulfur as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards. Water Resour Res. doi: 10.1029/2007WR006672 Google Scholar
  6. Janzen HH, Bettany JR (1987) Measurement of sulfur oxidation. Soil Sci 143:444–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Janzen HH, Ellert BH (1998) Sulfur dynamics in cultivated, temperate agroecosystems. In: Maynard DG (ed) Sulfur in the environment. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp 11–44Google Scholar
  8. Li S, Line B, Zhou W (2005) Effects of previous elemental sulfur applications on oxidation of additional applied elemental sulfur in soils. Biol Fertil Soils 42:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McBride MB (1994) Environmental chemistry of soils. New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. McIntosh PD, Sinclair AG, Enright PD (1985) Responses of legumes to phosphorus and sulphur on 2 toposequences of North Otago soils, New Zealand. NZ J Agric Res 28:505–515Google Scholar
  11. Morra MJ, Fendorf S, Brown PD (1997) Speciation of sulfur in humic and fulvic acids using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Napa County Conservation, Development, and Planning Department (2005) Agricultural resources. Baseline data report. http://www.co.napa.ca.us/gov/departments/29000/bdr/index.html. Accessed 1 February 2009
  13. Nor YM, Tabatabai MA (1977) Oxidation of elemental sulfur in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:736–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ober JA (2002) Materials flow of sulfur. Open-file report 02–298. USGS, Reston, VAGoogle Scholar
  15. Prietzel J, Weick C, Korintenberg J, Seybold G, Thumerer T, Treml B (2001) Effects of repeated (NH4)2SO4 application on sulfur pools in soil, soil microbial biomass, and ground vegetation of two watersheds in the Black Forest/Germany. Plant Soil 230:287–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ressler T (1998) WinXAS: A program for X-ray absorption spectroscopy data analysis under MS-Windows. J Synch Rad 5:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schumacher BA, Neary AJ, Palmer CJ, Maynard DG, Pastorek L, Morrison IK, Marsh M (1995) Laboratory methods for soil and foliar analysis in long-term environmental monitoring programs. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  18. Slaton NA, Ntamatungiro S, Wilson CE Jr, Norman RJ (1998) Influence of two elemental sulfur products applied to an alkaline silt loam on rice growth. In: Norman RJ, Johnston TH (eds) Res Ser 460. Ark Agric Exp Stn, Fayetteville, AR, pp 326–329Google Scholar
  19. Slaton NA, Norman RJ, Gilmour JT (2001) Oxidation rates of commercial elemental sulfur products applied to an alkaline silt loam from Arkansas. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tan Z, McLaren RG, Cameron KC (1994) Forms of sulfur extracted from soils after different methods of sample preparation. Soil Fertil Plant Nutr 32:823–834Google Scholar
  21. Thomas GW (1996) Soil pH and soil acidity. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis: part 3–chemical methods. SSSA Book Series: 5. Soil Sci Soc Am Madison, WI, pp 475–490Google Scholar
  22. USDA (1978) Soil survey of Napa County, California. USDAGoogle Scholar
  23. Watkinson JH, Lee A (1994) Kinetics of field oxidation of elemental sulfur in New Zealand pastoral soils and the effects of soil temperature and moisture. Fert Res 37:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Webb S (2005) Sixpack v.0.53. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA. USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Wen G, Schoenau JJ, Yamamoto T, Inoue M (2001) A model of oxidation of an elemental sulfur fertilizer in soils. Soil Sci 166:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eve-Lyn S. Hinckley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Scott Fendorf
    • 3
  • Pamela Matson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geological and Environmental SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Arctic and Alpine ResearchUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Earth Systems ScienceStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations