Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 88, Issue 3, pp 361–380 | Cite as

Need based nitrogen management using the chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart in rice and wheat in South Asia: a review

  • Varinderpal-SinghEmail author
  • Bijay-Singh
  • Yadvinder-Singh
  • H. S. Thind
  • R. K. Gupta
Research Article

Abstract

Fertilizer nitrogen (N) is one of the major inputs in rice–wheat production systems in South Asia. As fertilizer N has generally been managed following blanket recommendations consisting of two or three split applications of preset rates of the total amount of N, improvement in N use efficiency could not be achieved beyond a limit. Feeding crop N needs is the most appropriate fertilizer N management strategy to further improve N use efficiency. Since plant growth reflects the total N supply from all sources, plant N status at any given time should be a better indicator of the N availability. The chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart have emerged as diagnostic tools which can indirectly estimate crop N status of the growing crops and help define time and quantity of in-season fertilizer N top dressings in rice and wheat. Supplemental fertilizer N applications are thus synchronized with the N needs of crop. The chlorophyll meter may not be owned by South Asian farmers individually, but it can be made available to farmers through village cooperatives, extension specialists, and crop consultants. Leaf colour chart, a simple and cost-effective device has already penetrated into South Asian farming and increasing numbers of farmers are finding it helpful in efficiently managing N fertilizers. This paper reviews the results of investigations carried out using these diagnostic tools in managing need based N applications in rice and wheat in South Asia.

Keywords

Crop N demand Leaf colour chart N use efficiency Rice SPAD meter Wheat 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Varinderpal-Singh and Bijay-Singh acknowledge the financial support provided by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi in the form of ICAR National Professor project.

References

  1. Alam MM, Buresh RJ, Ladha JK, Khan AH (2004) Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) for rice: recommendations and user guidelines. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, GazipurGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam MM, Ladha JK, Khan SR, Foyjunnessa, Harun-ur-Rashid, Khan AH, Buresh RJ (2005) Leaf color chart for managing nitrogen fertilizer in lowland rice in Bangladesh. Agron J 97:949–959Google Scholar
  3. Alam MM, Ladha JK, Foyjunnessa, Rahman Z, Khan SR, Harun-ur-Rashid, Khan AH, Buresh RJ (2006) Nutrient management for increased productivity of rice-wheat cropping system in Bangladesh. Field Crops Res 96:374–386Google Scholar
  4. Angadi VV, Rajakumara S, Ganajaxi, Hugar AY, Basavaraj B, Subbaiah SV, Balasubramanian V (2002) Determining the leaf color chart threshold value for nitrogen management in rainfed rice. Int Rice Res Notes 27(2):34–35Google Scholar
  5. Arregui LM, Lasa B, Lafarga A, Iraneta I, Barja E, Quemada M (2006) Evaluation of chlorophyll meters as tools for N fertilization in winter wheat under humid Mediterranean conditions. Eur J Agron 24:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balasubramanian V (2002) Leaf colour chart for real-time N management in rice. Available via DIALOG. http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/. Cited 27 January 2008
  7. Balasubramanian V, Morales AC, Cruz RT, Abdulrachman S (1999) On-farm adaptation of knowledge-intensive nitrogen management technologies for rice systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 53:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balasubramanian V, Morales AC, Cruz RT, Thiyagarajan TM, Nagarajan R, Babu M, Abdulrachman S, Hai LH (2000) Adaptation of the chlorophyll meter (SPAD) technology for real-time N management in rice: a review. Int Rice Res Notes 25(1):4–8Google Scholar
  9. Bijay-Singh (2008) Crop demand-driven site specific nitrogen applications in rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum): some recent advances. Indian J Agron 53:1–10Google Scholar
  10. Bijay-Singh, Yadvinder-Singh, Ladha JK, Bronson KF, Balasubramanian V, Jagdeep-Singh, Khind CS (2002) Chlorophyll meter- and leaf color chart -based nitrogen management for rice and wheat in northwestern India. Agron J 94:821–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bijay-Singh, Yadvinder-Singh, Bains JS (2003) Real-time nitrogen management using chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart (LCC) in rice and wheat. In: Yadvinder-Singh et al (eds) Nutrient management for sustainable rice-wheat cropping system. NATP, ICAR, New Delhi India and Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, pp 115–124Google Scholar
  12. Bijay-Singh, Gupta RK, Yadvinder-Singh, Gupta SK, Jagmohan-Singh, Bains JS, Vashishta M (2006) Need-based nitrogen management using leaf color chart in wet direct-seeded rice in northwestern India. J New Seeds 8:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyd V (2001) A ‘low-tech, high-tech’ tool-Economical leaf color chart helps you check the crop for nitrogen. Rice Farming. Available via DIALOG http://www.ricefarming.com/home/archive/3colorchart.htm. Cited 12 January 2008
  14. Budhar MN, Tamilselvan N (2003) Leaf colour chart-based N management in wet-seeded rice. Int Rice Res Notes 28(1):63–64Google Scholar
  15. Buresh RJ (2007) Fertile progress. Rice Today 6(3):32–33Google Scholar
  16. Buresh RJ, Witt C, Ramanathan S, Mishra B, Chandrasekaran B, Rajendran R (2005) Site-specific nutrient management: managing N, P, and K for rice. Fertil News 50:25–28 (31–37)Google Scholar
  17. Cassman KG, De-Datta SK, Amarante S, Liboon S, Samson MI, Dizon MA (1996) Long-term comparison of agronomic efficiency and residual benefits of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources for tropical lowland rice. Exp Agric 32:427–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dobermann A, Witt C, Dawe D, Gines HC, Nagarajan R, Satawathananont S, Son TT, Tan PS, Wang GH, Chien NV, Thoa VTK, Phung CV, Stalin P, Muthukrishnan P, Ravi V, Babu M, Chatuporn S, Kongchum M, Sun Q, Fu R, Simbahan GC, Adviento MAA (2002) Site-specific nutrient management for intensive rice cropping systems in Asia. Field Crops Res 74:37–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dobermann A, Witt C, Abdulrachman S, Gines HC, Nagarajan R, Son TT, Tan PS, Wang GH, Chien NV, Thoa VYK, Phung CV, Stalin P, Muthukrishnan P, Ravi V, Babu M, Simbahan GC, Adviento MAA (2003) Soil fertility and indigenous nutrient supply in irrigated rice domains of Asia. Agron J 95:913–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Esfahani M, Ali Abbasi HR, Rabiei B, Kavousi M (2008) Improvement of nitrogen management in rice paddy fields using chlorophyll meter (SPAD). Paddy Water Environ 6:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fairhurst T, Witt C, Buresh R, Dobermann A (eds) (2007) Rice: a practical guide to nutrient management, 2nd edn. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and (Singapore) International Plant Nutrition Institute and International Potash Institute. Available via DIALOG. http://www.eseap.org/ppiweb/seasia.nsf/$webindex/article=872632A9482570760008A05FC76C1813. Cited 12 June 2009
  22. FAOSTAT (2009) FAO statistic division http://faostat.fao.org.site/575default.aspx#ancor
  23. Follett RH, Follett RF (1992) Use of a chlorophyll meter to evaluate the nitrogen status of dryland winter wheat. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 23:687–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Furuya S (1987) Growth diagnosis of rice plants by means of leaf color. Jpn Agric Res Q 20:147–153Google Scholar
  25. Haque MA, Husain MM, Jharna DE, Uddin MN, Iqbal Hussain ASM (2003) A comparative study of leaf color chart based and farmer’s practice of nitrogen fertilizer application on rice under on-farm conditions of Bangladesh. Pakistan J Biol Sci 6:1685–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heong KL (2007) Natural resource management for rainfed lowland and upland rice ecosystems. Annual report of Director General, IRRI, 2006–2007, pp 43–49. Available via DIALOG. http://www.irri.org/science/progsum/pdfs/DGReport2007/Project-8.pdf. Cited 29 January 2009
  27. Huan TTN, Tan PS, Hiraoka H (2002) Optimum application rates of nitrogen fertilizer for high-yielding rice cultivars based on growth diagnosis in the Mekong delta. Jpn Int Res Center Agric Sci Work Rep 26:3–9Google Scholar
  28. Huang J, He F, Cui K, Buresh RJ, Xu B, Gong W, Peng S (2008) Determination of optimal nitrogen rate for rice varieties using a chlorophyll meter. Field Crops Res 105:70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hussain F, Bronson KF, Singh Y, Singh B, Peng S (2000) Use of chlorophyll meter sufficiency indices for nitrogen management of irrigated rice in Asia. Agron J 92:875–879Google Scholar
  30. Hussain F, Zia MS, Akhtar ME, Yasin M (2003) Nitrogen management and use efficiency with chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart. Pakistan J Soil Sci 22:1–10Google Scholar
  31. Inada K (1963) Studies on a method for determining the deepness of green colour and chlorophyll content of intact crop leaves and its practical applications. I. Principle for estimating the deepness of green color and chlorophyll content of whole leaves. Proc Crop Sci Soc Jpn 32:157–162Google Scholar
  32. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) (1996) Use of leaf color chart (LCC) for N management in rice. Crop and Resource Management Network Technology Brief No. 1. IRRI, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  33. IRRI-CREMNET (International Rice Research Institute-Crop and Resource Management Network) (1998) Progress report for 1997, IRRI, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  34. IRRI-CREMNET (International Rice Research Institute-Crop and Resource Management Network) (2000) Progress Report for 1998 and 1999, IRRI, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  35. IRRI-CREMNET (International Rice Research Institute-Crop and Resource Management Network) (2001) Progress Report for 1999 and 2000, IRRI, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  36. Islam Z, Bagchi B, Hossain M (2007) Adoption of leaf colour chart for nitrogen use efficiency in rice: impact assessment of a farmer-participatory experiment in West Bengal, India. Field Crops Res 103:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Janaki P, Thiyagarajan TM (2004) Effect of SPAD techniques and planting density on ‘Y’ leaf nitrogen concentration in transplanted rice. Acta Agron Hung 52:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jayanthi T, Gali SK, Angadi VV, Chimmad VP (2007) Effect of leaf colour chart based nitrogen management on growth and yield parameters of rainfed rice. Karnataka J Agric Sci 20:272–275Google Scholar
  39. Johnkutty I, Palaniappan SP (1995) Use of chlorophyll meter for nitrogen management in lowland rice. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 45:21–24Google Scholar
  40. Jund MF, Turner FT (1990) Chlorophyll meter for predicting N fertilizer needs. In: Rister ME (ed) Proceedings of twenty-third rice technical working group, Texas A and M University: College Station, TX, p 104Google Scholar
  41. Kirk G (2004) The biogeochemistry of submerged soils. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 0-470-86301-3Google Scholar
  42. Krupnik TJ, Six J, Ladha JK, Paine MJ, Kessel CV (2004) An assessment of fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiency by grain crops. In: Mosier AR et al (eds) Agriculture and the nitrogen cycle: assessing the impacts of fertilizer use on food production and the environment. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), ParisGoogle Scholar
  43. Kyaw KK (2003) Plot-specific N fertilizer management for improved N-use efficiency in rice based systems of Bangladesh. In: Vlek PLG, Denich M, Martius C, Giesen NVD (eds) Ecology and development series No. 12. Cuvillier, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  44. Lopez-Bellido RJ, Shepherd CE, Barraclough PB (2004) Predicting post-anthesis N requirements of bread wheat with a Minolta SPAD meter. Eur J Agron 20:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maiti D, Das DK (2006) Management of nitrogen through the use of leaf colour chart (LCC) and soil plant analysis development (SPAD) in wheat under irrigated ecosystem. Arch Agron Soil Sci 52:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Maiti D, Das DK, Karak T, Banerjee M (2004) Management of nitrogen through the use of leaf color chart (LCC) and soil plant analysis development (SPAD) or chlorophyll meter in rice under irrigated ecosystem. Sci World J 4:838–846Google Scholar
  47. Meelu OP, Gupta RK (1980) Time of fertilizer N application in rice culture. Int Rice Res Newsl 5:20–21Google Scholar
  48. Meelu OP, Saggar S, Maskina MS, Rekhi RS (1987) Time and source of nitrogen application in rice and wheat. J Agril Sci Camb 109:387–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morales AC, Agustin EO, Lucas MP, Marcos TF, Culanay DA, Balasubramanian V (2000) Comparative efficiency of N management practices on rainfed lowland rice in Batac, Philippines. Int Rice Res Notes 25(1):22–23Google Scholar
  50. Murdock L, Jones S, Bowley C, Needham P, James J, Howe P (1997) Using a chlorophyll meter to make nitrogen recommendations on wheat. Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky. AGR 170, p 4Google Scholar
  51. Nachimuthu G, Velu V, Malarvizhi P, Ramasamy S, Gurusamy L (2007) Standardisation of leaf colour chart based nitrogen management in direct wet seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Agron 6:338–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Parvizi Y, Ronaghi A, Maftoun M, Karimian NA (2004) Growth, nutrient status, and chlorophyll meter readings in wheat as affected by nitrogen and manganese. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 35:1387–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peltonen J, Virtanen A, Haggren E (1995) Using a chlorophyll meter to optimize nitrogen fertilizer application for intensively managed small-grain cereals. J Agron Crop Sci 174:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peng S, Cassman KG (1998) Upper thresholds of nitrogen uptake rates and associated nitrogen fertilizer efficiencies in irrigated rice. Agron J 90:178–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Peng S, Garcia FV, Laza RC, Cassman KG (1993) Adjustment for specific leaf weight improves chlorophyll meter’s estimate of rice leaf nitrogen concentration. Agron J 85:987–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Peng S, Laza RC, Garcia FV, Cassman KG (1995) Chlorophyll meter estimates leaf area based nitrogen concentration of rice. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 26:927–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Peng S, Garcia FV, Laza RC, Sanico AL, Visperas RM, Cassman KG (1996) Increased nitrogen use efficiency using a chlorophyll meter in high-yielding irrigated rice. Field Crops Res 47:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Peterson TA, Blackmer TM, Francis DD, Scheppers JS (1993) Using a chlorophyll meter to improve N management. Nebuguide G93-1171A. Coop Ext Ser University of Nebraska Lincoln, USAGoogle Scholar
  59. Ramesh K, Chandrasekaran B, Balasubramanian TN, Bangarusamy U, Sivasamy R, Sankaran N (2002) Chlorophyll dynamics in rice (Oryza sativa) before and after flowering based on SPAD (chlorophyll) meter monitoring and its relation with grain yield. J Agron Crop Sci 188:102–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shukla AK, Ladha JK, Singh VK, Dwivedi BS, Balasubramanian V, Gupta RK, Sharma SK, Singh Y, Pathak H, Pandey PS, Padre AT, Yadav RL (2004) Calibrating the leaf color chart for nitrogen management in different genotypes of rice and wheat in a systems perspective. Agron J 96:1606–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Spaner D, Todd AG, Navabi A, McKenzie DB, Goonewardene LA (2005) Can leaf chlorophyll measures at differing growth stages be used as an indicator of winter wheat and spring barley nitrogen requirements in eastern Canada? J Agron Crop Sci 191:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Spectrum Technologies, Inc. (2009) Available via DIALOG. http://www.specmeters.com/Chlorophyll_Meters/CM_1000_Chlorophyll_Meter.html. Cited 20 January 2009
  63. Takebe M, Okazaki K, Karasawa T, Watanabe J, Ohshita Y, Tsuji H (2006) Leaf colour diagnosis and nitrogen management for winter wheat “Kitanokaori” in Hokkaido. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 52:577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Timsina J, Connor DJ (2001) Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems: issues and challenges. Field Crops Res 69:93–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Turner FT, Jund MF (1991) Chlorophyll meter to predict nitrogen topdress requirement for semidwarf rice. Agron J 83:926–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Uddling J, Gelang-Alfredsson J, Piikki K, Pleijel H (2007) Evaluating the relationship between leaf chlorophyll concentration and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter readings. Photosynth Res. Available via DIALOG. http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:17342446 cited 15 June 2009
  67. Varinderpal-Singh, Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, Baldev-Singh, Gupta RK, Jagmohan-Singh, Ladha JK, Balasubramanian V (2007) Performance of site specific nitrogen management for irrigated transplanted rice in northwestern India. Arch Agron Soil Sci 53:567–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vidal I, Longeril L, H′etier JM (1999) Nitrogen uptake and chlorophyll meter measurements in spring wheat. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 55:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wells BR, Turner FT (1984) Nitrogen use in flooded rice soils. In: Hauck RD (ed) Nitrogen use in crop production. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 349–362Google Scholar
  70. Witt C, Dobermann A (2002) Site-specific nutrient management approach for irrigated, lowland rice in Asia. Better Crops 16:20–24Google Scholar
  71. Witt C, Pasuquin JMCA, Muttase R, Buresh RJ (2005) New leaf colour chart for effective nitrogen management in rice. Better crops 89:36–39Google Scholar
  72. Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, Ladha JK, Bains JS, Gupta RK, Jagmohan-Singh, Balasubramanian V (2007) On-farm evaluation of leaf color chart for need-based nitrogen management in irrigated transplanted rice in northwestern India. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 78:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yang WH, Peng S, Huang J, Sanico AL, Buresh RJ, Witt C (2003) Using leaf colour charts to estimate leaf nitrogen status of rice. Agron J 95:212–217Google Scholar
  74. Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth of cereals. Weed Res 14:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Varinderpal-Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bijay-Singh
    • 1
  • Yadvinder-Singh
    • 2
  • H. S. Thind
    • 2
  • R. K. Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR National Professor ProjectPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of SoilsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations