Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 86, Issue 2, pp 199–209 | Cite as

Relative efficiency of diammonium phosphate and mussoorie rock phosphate on productivity and phosphorus balance in a rice–rapeseed–mungbean cropping system

  • S. N. Sharma
  • R. Prasad
  • Y. S. Shivay
  • M. K. Dwivedi
  • Sandeep Kumar
  • M. R. Davari
  • Moola Ram
  • Dinesh Kumar
Original article


The field experiments were conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India for 3 years from 2001–2002 to 2003–2004 to study the relative efficiency of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and Mussoorie rock phosphate along with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria inoculation (MRP + PSB) at different rates of application on productivity and phosphorus balance in a rice-rapeseed-mungbean cropping system. Phosphorus application significantly increased the productivity of rice-rapeseed-mungbean cropping system and resulted in an increase in 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable P content in soil. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of MRP + PSB in relation to DAP as judged by the total productivity was 53–65% in the first cycle but reached 69–106% in the third cycle of the cropping system. The P balance (application—crop removal) was generally more positive for MRP + PSB than DAP and the highest P balance was recorded with an application of 52.5 kg P ha−1 as MRP + PSB, resulted in highest 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable P content in soil. The present study, thus, shows that MRP + PSB could be usefully employed as an alternative to DAP in long term in the rice–rapeseed–mungbean cropping system.


Available P CO2 evolution Diammonium phosphate Mussoorie rock phosphate Phosphorus balance Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria Productivity Relative agronomic effectiveness 



All the authors duly acknowledge the financial assistance received from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research to carry out this investigation in the form of Cess-Fund Research Project. Our sincere thanks are due to Director and Head of the Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi for their advice and support. Rajendra Prasad is grateful to the Indian National Science Academy for granting him an INSA Honorary Scientist Position.


  1. Allan DL, Killorn R (1996) Assessing soil N, P and K for crops nutrition and environment risk In: Doran JW, James AJ (eds). Methods for assessing soil quality, vol 49. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Sp. Pub, pp 187–201Google Scholar
  2. Babare AM, Gilker RJ, Sale PWG (1997) The effect of phosphate buffering capacity and other soil properties on North Carolina phosphate rock dissolution, availability of dissolved phosphorus and relative agronomic effectiveness. Aust J Exp Agric 8:845–1098Google Scholar
  3. Bojinova D, Velkova R, Grancharov I, Zhelev S (1997) The bioconversion of Tunisian phosphorite using Aspergillus niger. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 47:227–232. doi: 10.1007/BF01986277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolan NS, White RE, Hedley MJ (1990) A review of the use of phosphate rock as fertilizers of direct application in Australia and Newzeland. Aust J Exp Agric 30:297–313. doi: 10.1071/EA9900297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casanova E (1995) Agronomic evaluation of fertilizers with special reference to natural and modified phosphate rock. Fert Res 41:211–218. doi: 10.1007/BF00748310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clien SH (2003) Factors affecting the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock: a general review In: Rajan SSS, Chien SH (eds) Direct application of phosphate rock and related technology: latest developments and practical experience. Proc. Int. Meeting, Kuala Lumpur, 16–20 July 2001 Muscle Shoals, USA, IFDC, p 441Google Scholar
  7. Clien SH, Carmona G, Henao J, Prochnow LI (2003) Evaluation of rape response to different sources of phosphate rock in an alkaline soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:1825–1835. doi: 10.1081/CSS-120023217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cosgrove DJ (1977) Microbial transformations in the phosphorus cycle. Adv Microb Ecol 1:95–134Google Scholar
  9. Dahanayake K, Van Kauwenbergh SJ, Hellums DT (eds) (1995) Direct application of phosphate rock and appropriate technology fertilizers in Asia. Wheat hinders acceptance and growth, vol 64. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, p 822Google Scholar
  10. Duxbury JM, Abrol IP, Gupta RK, Bronson K (2000) Analysis of long-term soil fertility experiments with rice–wheat rotation in South Asia. In: Abrol IP, Bronson K, Duxbury JM, Gupta RK (eds) Long-term soil fertility experiments in rice–wheat cropping system, vol 6. Rice–wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, pp vii–xxiiGoogle Scholar
  11. FAI (2006) Fertilizer statistics (2005–2006). The Fertilizer Association of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Fox RL, Saunders WMH, Rajan SSS (1986) Phosphorus nutrition of pasture species: phosphorus requirement and root saturation values. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frederick T, Truong B, Fayard F (1992) Pre-feasibility study: production of modified phosphate fertilizers using Kodjari phosphate rock Burkina Faso. IFDC-CIRAD-TECHNIFERT, p 91Google Scholar
  14. Gaur AC (1990) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms as biofertilizers. Omega Science Publication, New Delhi, p 176Google Scholar
  15. Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedure for agricultural research, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Govil BP, Prasad R (1974) Effect of the amounts of phosphate fertilizers and the proportions of water soluble phosphate in the fertilizers tested on the phosphorus nutrition of sorghum. J Agric Sci 44:106–110Google Scholar
  17. Habib L, Clien SH, Carmona G, Henao J (1999) Rape response to a Syrian phosphate rock and its mixture with triple superphosphate on a limited alkaline soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30:449–456. doi: 10.1080/00103629909370216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Halder AK, Mishra AK, Bhattacharyya P, Chakrabartty PK (1990) Solubilization of rock phosphate by Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. J Gen Appl Microbiol 36:81–92. doi: 10.2323/jgam.36.81 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. He ZH, Bian W, Zhu J (2002) Screening and identification of microorganisms capable of utilizing phosphate absorbed by goethite. Commun Soil Sci Aust 33:647–663. doi: 10.1081/CSS-120003057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Illmer P, Schinner F (1992) Solubilization of inorganic phosphorus by microorganisms isolated from forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 24:389–395. doi: 10.1016/0038-0717(92)90199-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jiaguo Z (2000) Rice–wheat cropping system in China. In: Hobbs PR, Gupta RK (eds) Soil and crop management practices for enhanced productivity of the rice–wheat cropping system in Sichuan province of China. Rice–Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones DL (1998) Organic acids in the rhizosphere-acritical review. Plant Soil 205:25–44. doi: 10.1023/A:1004356007312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuccy RMN, Janzen HH, Legget ME (1989) Microbially mediated increase in plant available phosphorus. Adv Agro 42:199–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar P, Joshi PK, Johanson C, Asokan M (1998) Sustainability of rice-based cropping systems in India. Econ and Political. Weekly 33, A 152-A 158Google Scholar
  25. Ladha JK, Fisher KS, Hossain M, Hobbs PR, Hardy B (2000) Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice–wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: a synthesis of NARS–IRRI partnership research. Discussion paper no. 40. IRRI, Los Banos, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  26. Lianzheng W, Yixian G (1994) Rice–wheat systems and their development in China. In: Paroda RS, Woodhead T, Singh RB (eds) Sustainability of rice–wheat production systems in Asia. ROAP, FAO, BangtokGoogle Scholar
  27. Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Bretherton MR (1994) The agronomic value of co-granulated Christmas Island grade C phosphate rock and elmental sulphur. Fert Res 39:229–237. doi: 10.1007/BF00750251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maloth S, Prasad R (1976) Relative efficiency of rock phosphate and super phosphate for cowpea fodder. Plant Soil 75:295–300. doi: 10.1007/BF00011155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mathur BS, Jha KK, Lal S, Srivastava BP (1979) Utilization of phosphate rock deposits in rice soils of Chotanagpur. Indian Soc Soil Sci Bull 12:505–572Google Scholar
  30. Motsara MR (2002) Available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium status of Indian soils as depicted by soil fertility maps. Fertil News 47(8):15–21Google Scholar
  31. PPCL Pyrites Phosphates and Chemicals Ltd (1983) Research on Mussoorie phosphate rock. Technical Bulletin No. 1, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  32. Prasad R (2005) Rice–wheat cropping system. Adv Agron 86:285–339Google Scholar
  33. Prasad R, Shivay YS, Kumar Dinesh, Sharma SN (2006) Learning by doing exercises in soil fertility. A practical manual for soil fertility. Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, p 68Google Scholar
  34. Rajan SSS (1973) Phosphorus adsorption characteristics of Hawaiian soils and their relationships to equilibrium concentration required for maximum growth of millet. Plant Soil 39:519–532. doi: 10.1007/BF00264170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rajan SS, Watkinson JH, Sinclair AC (1996) Phosphate rock for direct application in soils. Adv Agron 57:78–159Google Scholar
  36. Rangaswamy S, Arunachalam G (1983) Influence of Mussoorie rock phosphate on the main and residual crop of paddy in a neutral soil. Indian J Agric Chem 15:125–137Google Scholar
  37. Ruaysoongnern S, Keerati-Kasikorn P (1998) Role of phosphorus fertilization in improving the soil fertility and acid tropical and sub-tropical soils in Asia. In: Johnston AE, Syers JK (eds) Nutrient management for sustainable crop production in Asia. CABI, Wallingford, pp 61–73Google Scholar
  38. Saggar S, Hedley MJ, White RE, Gregg PEH, Perrot KW, Cornforth IS (1992) Development and evaluations of an empirical soil test for phosphorus : 2.Comparison of the Olsen and mixed cation-anion exchange resin test for predicting the yield of ryegrass grown in fields. Fert Res 33:135–144. doi: 10.1007/BF01051168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sanchez PA, Uehara G (1980) Management considerations for acid soils with high phosphorus fixation capacity. In: Khasaueneh FE, Sample EC, Kamprath EJ (eds) The role of phosphorus in agriculture. American Soc Agron, Madison WI, pp 417–514Google Scholar
  40. Sharma JP, Aggarwal B (2006) Dissolution of rock phosphate by chemical and biological means. Indian Farm 59(1):31–34Google Scholar
  41. Sharma SN, Prasad R (1996) Mussoorie rock phosphate–pyrite mixture as phosphate fertilizer. Fert Res 45:187–191. doi: 10.1007/BF00748588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sharma SN, Prasad R (2003) Yield and P uptake by rice and wheat grown in a sequence as influenced by phosphate fertilization with diammonium phosphate and mussoorie rock phosphate with or without crop residue and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. J Agric Sci 141:359–369. doi: 10.1017/S0021859603003678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sharma SN, Sharma SK (2004) Role of crop diversification and integrated nutrient management in resilience of soil fertility under rice-wheat cropping system. Arch Agron Soil Sci 50:511–519. doi: 10.1080/0365034042000218804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sharma SN, Ray SB, Pandey SL, Prasad R (1983) Effect of irrigation, pyrites and phospho bacteria on the efficiency of rock phosphate applied to lentil. J Agric Sci 101:467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh RB, Paroda RS (1994) Sustainability and productivity of rice-wheat system in the Asian-Pacific region: research and technology development issues. In: Paroda RS, Woodhead T, Singh RB (eds) Sustainability of rice–wheat production system in Asia. ROAP, FAO, Bangkok, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  46. Stevenson FJ (1986) Cycles of soils. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Subba Rao NS (1977) Soil microorganisms and plant growth. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Private LimitedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. N. Sharma
    • 1
  • R. Prasad
    • 1
  • Y. S. Shivay
    • 1
  • M. K. Dwivedi
    • 1
  • Sandeep Kumar
    • 1
  • M. R. Davari
    • 1
  • Moola Ram
    • 1
  • Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of AgronomyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations