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Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 83, Issue 3, pp 271–287 | Cite as

Nitrogen use efficiency of 15N-labelled sheep manure and mineral fertiliser applied to microplots in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

  • C. Bosshard
  • P. Sørensen
  • E. Frossard
  • D. Dubois
  • P. Mäder
  • S. Nanzer
  • A. Oberson
Original Article

Abstract

Nitrogen (N) utilisation by crops has to be improved to minimize losses to the environment. We investigated N use efficiency of animal manure and mineral fertiliser and fate of fertiliser N not taken up by crops in a conventional (CONMIN) and a bio-organic (BIOORG) cropping system of a long-term field experiment over three vegetation periods (winter wheat–soybean–maize). Microplots planted with wheat received a single application of 15N-labelled slurries (either urine or faeces labelled) or mineral fertiliser. At the end of each vegetation period we tested whether higher microbial activity and larger microbial biomass in BIOORG than CONMIN soils, and lower long-term N input level in BIOORG, affected use efficiency and fate of fertiliser N not taken up by crops. Recovery of 15N in wheat was 37%, 10% and 47% from urine, faeces and mineral fertiliser, respectively, and decreased strongly in the residual years. In total 41%, 15% and 50% of 15N applied as urine, faeces and mineral fertiliser was recovered by the three crops. 15N recovered from originally applied urine, faeces and mineral fertiliser in the topsoil (0–18 cm) at the end of the third vegetation period was 19%, 25% and 20%, respectively. Of urine-, faeces- and mineral fertiliser-15N, 40%, 61% and 29%, respectively, was not recovered by the three crops and in topsoil suggesting significant transport of 15N-labelled components to deeper soil layers. CONMIN and BIOORG differed neither in fertiliser N use efficiency by crops nor in 15N recovery in soil indicating insignificant difference in the turnover and utilization of the applied manure nitrogen in the conventional and the bio-organic cropping systems.

Keywords

Animal manure Microplot Mineral fertiliser 15N use efficiency Organic and conventional cropping systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge W. Jossi (ART) and R. Frei (FiBL) for their help in the field work as well as L. Gunst and U. Zihlmann (both ART) for providing data records on the field experiment. The authors thank H.-R. Roth (Seminar for Statistics, ETH) for advice in statistics, S. Recous (INRA, France) for helpful discussions and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. We warmly thank M. Stocki (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon) for providing mass spectrometry analyses and R. Ruh, T. Flura, T. Rösch and S. Douxchamps (all from Group of Plant Nutrition, ETH) for technical assistance in the field and the laboratory.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Bosshard
    • 1
  • P. Sørensen
    • 2
  • E. Frossard
    • 1
  • D. Dubois
    • 3
  • P. Mäder
    • 4
  • S. Nanzer
    • 1
  • A. Oberson
    • 1
  1. 1.Group of Plant Nutrition, Institute of Plant SciencesSwiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) ZurichLindauSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of AarhusTjeleDenmark
  3. 3.Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon (ART)ZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL)FrickSwitzerland

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