Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 15–23 | Cite as

The Effect of Future Climate Perturbations on N2O Emissions from a Fertilized Humid Grassland

  • Cheng-I Hsieh
  • Paul Leahy
  • Ger Kiely
  • Changsheng Li
Article

Abstract

N2O emissions from a fertilized humid grassland near Cork, Ireland were continuously measured during 2003 using an eddy covariance system. For most of the year emissions were close to zero and 60% of the emissions occurred in eight major events of 2–20 days’ duration. Two hundred and seven kg ha−1 of synthetic N and 130 kg ha−1 organic N were applied over the year and the total measured annual N2O emission was 11.6 kg N ha−1. The flux data were used to test the prediction of N2O emissions by the DNDC (DeNitrification – DeComposition) model. The model predicted total emissions of 15.4 kg N ha−1, 32 % more than the observed emissions. On this basis the model was further used to simulate (a) background (non-anthropogenic) N2O emissions and (b) the effect on N2O emissions of future climate perturbations based on the Hadley Center model output of the IS92a scenario for Ireland. DNDC predicts 1.7 kg N ha−1 year−1 of background N2O emissions, accounting for 15% of the observed emissions. Climate shifts will increase total annual modeled N2O emissions from 15.4 kg N ha−1 to 22.4 kg N ha−1 if current levels of N applications are maintained, or to 21.2 kg N ha−1 if synthetic N applications are reduced to 170 kg N ha−1 to comply with recent EU water quality legislation. Thus the projected increase in N2O emissions due to climate change is far larger than the decrease expected from reduced fertilizer applications.

Keywords

Climate change DNDC model Emission factor Nitrogen fertilizer Nitrous oxide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bouwman, A.F., van der Hoek, K.W., Olivier, J.G.J. 1995Uncertainties in the global source distribution of nitrous oxideJ. Geophys. Res.10027852800doi: 10.1029/94JD02946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    CEC1991Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. Council DirectiveCouncil of the European CommunitiesBrussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dobbie, K.E., McTaggart, I.P., Smith, K.A. 1999Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factorsJ. Geophys. Res.1042689126899doi:10.1029/1999JD900378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gordon, C., Cooper, C., Senior, C.A., Banks, H.T., Gregory, J.M., Johns, T.C., Mitchell, J.F.B., Wood, R.A. 2000Simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centeer coupled model without flux adjustmentsClim. Dynam.16147168Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holden, N.M., Brereton, A.J. 2002An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on grass yield in Ireland over the next 100 yearsIrish J. Ag. Food Res.41213226Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hsieh C.-I., Kiely G., Birkby A. and Katul G. 2005. Photosynthetic responses of a humid grassland ecosystem to future climate perturbations. Adv. Wat. Res. doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.02.007 (in press).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    IPCC2001Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. ReportCambridge University PressNew York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jordan, C. 1997Mapping of Rainfall Chemistry In Ireland 1972–1994Biol. Env.: Proc. Royal Irish Acad.97B5373Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leahy P., Kiely G. and Scanlon T.M. 2004. Managed grasslands: a greenhouse gas sink or source? Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(L20507). doi:10.1029/2004GL021161. vol. 31, art. L20507.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leggett, J., Pepper, W.J., Swart, R.J. 1992Emissions scenarios for the IPCC: an updateHoughton, J.T.Callander, B.A.Varney, S.K. eds. Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific AssessmentCambridge University PressCambridgeUK6995Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, C.S. 2000Modeling trace gas emissions from agricultural ecosystemsNutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst.58259276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, C.S., Frolking, S., Frolking, T.A. 1992aA model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 1. Model structure and sensitivityJ. Geophys. Res.9797599776Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li, C.S., Frolking, S., Frolking, T.A. 1992bA model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 2. Model applicationsJ. Geophys. Res.9797779783Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maag M. and Vinther F.P. 1996. Nitrons oxide emission by nitrification and denitrification in different soil types and at different soil moisture contents and temperatures. Appl. Soil Ecol. 4: 5–14.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pope, V.D., Gallani, M.L., Rowntree, P.R., Stratton, R.A. 2000The impact of new physical parameterizations in the Hadley Centre climate model – HadAM3Clim. Dynam.16123146Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Prather, M.J. 1998Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: coupled perturbations to N2O, NOyand O3Science27913391341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prinn, R.G., Weiss, R.F., Fraser, P.J., Simmonds, P.G., Cunnold, D.M., Alyea, F.N., O’Doherty, S., Salameh, P., Miller, B.R., Huang, J., Wang, R.H.J., Hartley, D.E., Harth, C., Steele, L.P., Sturrock, G., Midgley, P.M., McCulloch, A. 2000A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGEJ. Geophys. Res.1051775117792 doi: 10.1029/2000JD900141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scanlon, T., Kiely, G. 2003Ecosystem-scale measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes for an intensely grazedfertilized grasslandGeophys. Res. Lett.3018521856 doi: 10.1029/2003GL017454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith, K.A., Ball, T., Conen, F., Dobbie, K.E., Massheder, J., Rey, A. 2003Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processesEur. J. Soil Sci.54779791 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2389.2003-00567.xGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    UNFCCC. 2004. UNFCCC Greenhouse Gases Inventory Data Base, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Web Page. http://ghg.unfccc.int/.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whitehead, D.C. 1995Grassland Nitrogen. 1st ednCAB International, WallingfordOxon, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng-I Hsieh
    • 1
  • Paul Leahy
    • 2
  • Ger Kiely
    • 2
  • Changsheng Li
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Bioenvironmental Systems EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  3. 3.Complex Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations