Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Summarizing Published Data and Estimating Global Annual Rates Article Received: 23 September 2004 Accepted: 24 February 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Hofstra, N. & Bouwman, A.F. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst (2005) 72: 267. doi:10.1007/s10705-005-3109-y Abstract
Information taken from 336 measurements of denitrification in agricultural soils was summarized to assess the influence on denitrification of several factors related to soil, climate, agricultural management and the measurement techniques. The data set is summarized by calculating means and medians and balanced median values (with correction for unbalanced features) for all factor classes in the data set, and by developing a summary model to calculate global denitrification rates for a 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution. Our results suggest that agricultural fields with high nitrogen application rates and poor soil drainage show higher denitrification values than those with lower nitrogen application rate and good soil drainage. The data also indicate that conditions in wetland rice systems are more prone to denitrification than those in upland cropping and grassland systems. Large uncertainties in the results are caused by differences between the measurement techniques and lack of long-term measurements covering the range of environmental and management conditions found in global agricultural fields.
Keywords Agriculture Animal manure Denitrification Fertilizer Model Nitrogen References Bacon, P.E., Freney, J.R. 1989 Nitrogen loss from different tillage systems and the effect on cereal grain yield Fertil. Res. 20 59 66 CrossRef Google Scholar Batjes, N.H. 1997 A world dataset of derived soil properties by FAO-UNESCO soil unit for global modelling Soil Use Manage. 13 9 16 Google Scholar Beauchamp, E.G., Trevors, J.T., Paul, J.W. 1989 Carbon sources for bacterial denitrification Stewart, B. eds. Advances in Soil Science 10 Springer Verlag New York 113 142 Google Scholar Betlach, M.R., Tiedje, J.M. 1981 Kinetic explanation for accumulation of nitritenitric oxide and nitrous oxide during bacterial denitrification Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42 1074 1084 Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F. eds. 1990Soils and the Greenhouse Effect Wiley and Sons ChichesterNew York Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F. 1996 Direct emission of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 46 53 70 CrossRef Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F., Boumans, L.J.M., Batjes, N.H. 2002a Emissions of N 2O and NO from fertilized fields. Summary of available measurement data Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16 1058 CrossRef Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F., Boumans, L.J.M., Batjes, N.H. 2002b Estimation of global NH 3 volatilization loss from synthetic fertilizers and animal manure applied to arable lands and grasslands Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16 1024 CrossRef Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F., Boumans, L.J.M., Batjes, N.H. 2002c Modeling global annual N 2O and NO emissions from fertilized fields Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16 1080 CrossRef Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F., Drecht, G., Hoek, K.W. 2005 Nitrogen surface balances in intensive agricultural production systems in different world regions for the period 1970–2030 Pedosphere 15 137 155 Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F., Vuuren, D.P., Derwent, R.G., Posch, M. 2002d A global analysis of acidification and eutrophication of terrestrial ecosystems WaterAir Soil Poll. 141 349 382 CrossRef Google Scholar Brumme, R., Beese, F. 1992 Effects of liming and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of CO 2 and N 2O from a temperate forest Journal Geophys. Res. 97 12851 12858 Google Scholar Crill, P., Keller, M., Weitz, A., Grauel, B., Veldkamp, E. 2000 Intensive field measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from a tropical agricultural soil Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14 85 96 CrossRef Google Scholar Dowdell, R.J., Smith, K.A. 1974 Field studies of the soil atmosphere II. Occurrence of nitrous oxide J. Soil Sci. 25 231 238 Google Scholar Duxbury, J.M., Bouldin, D.R., Terry, R.E., Tate, R.L. 1982 Emissions of nitrous oxide from soils Nature 298 462 464 CrossRef Google Scholar
FAO/IFA 2001. Global estimates of gaseous emissions of NH
3NO and N 2O from agricultural land. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Rome 106pp. Fillery, I.R.P., Vlek, P.L.G. 1982 The significance of denitrification of applied nitrogen in fallow and cropped rice soils under different flooding regimes. 1. Greenhouse experiments Plant Soil 65 153 169 Google Scholar Freney, J.R., Denmead, O.T. 1992 Factors controlling ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from flooded rice fields Ecol. Bull. 42 188 194 Google Scholar Freney, J.R., Trevitt, A.C.F., Datta, S.K., Obcemea, W.N., Real, J.G. 1990a The relative importance of denitrification and ammonia volatilization as loss processes in flooded rice in the Philippines Mitteilgn. Dtsch. Bodenkundl. Gesellsch. 60 211 216 Google Scholar Freney, J.R., Trevitt, A.C.T., Datta, S.K., Obcemea, W.N., Real, J.G. 1990b The interdependence of ammonia volatilization and denitrification as nitrogen loss process in flooded rice fields in the Philippines Biol. Fertil. Soils 9 31 36 CrossRef Google Scholar Galloway, J.N., Schlesinger, W.H., Levy, H., III, Michaels, A., Schnoor, J.L. 1995 Nitrogen fixation: anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9 235 252 CrossRef Google Scholar Klemedtsson, L., Svensson, B.H., Rosswall, T. 1988 A method of selective inhibition to distinguish between nitrification and denitrification as sources of nitrous oxide in soil Biol. Fertil. Soils 6 112 119 Google Scholar Klemedtsson, L.K., Mosier, A.R. 1994 Effect of long-term field exposure of soil to acetylene on nitrification, denitrification, and acetylene consumption Biol. Fertil. Soils 18 42 48 CrossRef Google Scholar Li, C., Frolking, S., Frolking, T.A. 1992 A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: I. Model structure and sensitivity J. Geophys. Res. 97 9759 9776 Google Scholar Mahmood, T., Ali, R., Azam, F., Malik, K.A. 1999 Comparsion of two versions of the acetylene inhibition/soil core method for measuring denitrification loss from an irrigated wheat field Biol. Fertil. Soils 29 328 331 CrossRef Google Scholar Myrold, D.D., Tiedje, J.M. 1985 Diffusional constraints on denitrification in soil Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49 651 657 Google Scholar New, M., Hulme, M., Jones, P. 1999 Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: Development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology J. Clim. 12 829 856 CrossRef Google Scholar Obcemea, W.N., Real, J.G., Datta, S.K. 1988 Effect of soil texture and nitrogen management on ammonia volatilization and total nitrogen loss Philipp. J. Crop Sci. 13 145 153 Google Scholar Parkin, T.B. 1987 Soil microsites as a source of denitrification variability Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51 1194 1199 Google Scholar
Payne R.W., Baird D.B., Gilmore A.R., Harding S.A., Lane P.W., Murray D.A., Soutar D.M., Thompson R., Todd A.D., Wilson G.T., Webster R. and Welham S.J. 2000. Genstat Release 4.2. Reference Manual. Lawes Agricultural Trust (Rothamsted Experimental Station), Harpenden, Hertfordshire, UK.
Robertson, G.P., Tiedje, J.M. 1987 Nitrous oxide sources in aerobic soils: nitrification, denitrification and other biological processes Soil Biol. Biochem. 19 187 193 CrossRef Google Scholar Schmidt, J., Seiler, W., Conrad, R. 1988 Emission of nitrous oxide from temperate forest soils into the atmosphere J. Atmos. Chem. 6 95 115 CrossRef Google Scholar Simek, M., Cooper, J.E., Picek, T., Santruckova, H. 2000 Denitrification in arable soils in relation to their physico-chemical properties and fertilization practice Soil Biol. Biochem. 32 101 110 CrossRef Google Scholar Tiedje, J.M. 1988 Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium Zehnder, A.J.B. eds. Biology of Anaerobic Microorganisms Wiley and Sons New York 179 244 Google Scholar Trenkel, M.E. 1997Improving fertilizer use efficiency. Controlled-release and stabilized fertilizers in agriculture International Fertilizer Industry Association Paris Google Scholar Drecht, G., Bouwman, A.F., Knoop, J.M., Beusen, A.H.W., Meinardi, C.R. 2003 Global modeling of the fate of nitrogen from point and nonpoint sources in soils, groundwater and surface water Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17 1115 CrossRef Google Scholar
Van Heerden C. and Tiktak A. 1994. The Graphical Programme XY. A Programme for Visualisation of Results from Mathematical Programmes. Report 715501002. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven 82pp. (In Dutch).
Yamulki, S., Harrison, R.M., Goulding, K.W.T., Webster, C.P. 1997 N 2O, NO and NO 2 fluxes from a grassland: effect of soil pH Soil Biol. Biochem. 29 1199 1208 CrossRef Google Scholar Zhu, Z.L., Chen, D.L. 2002 Nitrogen fertilizer use in China – Contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies Nutr. Cycling Agroecosys. 63 117 127 CrossRef Google Scholar