Spatial patterns of greenhouse gas emission in a tropical rainforest in Indonesia Abstract
Spatial patterns of CO
2, CH 4, and N 2O flux were analyzed in the soil of a primary forest in Sumatra, Indonesia. The fluxes were measured at 3-m intervals on a sampling grid of 8 rows by 10 columns, with fluxes found to be below the minimum detection level at 12 points for CH 4 and 29 points for N 2O. All three gas fluxes distributed log-normally. The means and standard deviations of CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes calculated by the maximum likelihood method were 3.68 ± 1.32 g C m −2 d −1 and 0.79 ± 0.60 mg C m −2 d −1, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of N 2O fluxes using a maximum likelihood estimator for the censored data set was 2.99 ± 3.26 μg N m −2 h −1. The spatial dependency of CH 4 fluxes was not detected in 3-m intervals, while weak spatial dependency was observed in CO 2 and N 2O fluxes. The coefficients of variation of CH 4 and N 2O were higher than that of CO 2. Some hot spots where high levels of CH 4 and N 2O were generated in the studied field may increase the variability of these gases. The resulting patterns of variability suggest that sampling distances of >10 m and > 20 m are required to obtain statistically independent samples for CO 2 and N 2O flux in the studied field, respectively. But because of weak or no spatial dependency of each flux, a sampling distance of more than 10 m intervals is enough to prevent a significant problem of autocorrelation for each flux measurement. Keywords Flux measurement Geostatistics Greenhouse gas Semivariogram Spatial variability Sumatra of Indonesia References Ambus, P., Christensen, S. 1994 Measurement of N 2O emission from a fertilized grassland: An analysis of spatial variability J. Geophys. Res 99 16549 16555 Google Scholar Bergstrom, D.W., Monreal, C.M., Millette, J.A., King, D.J. 1998 Spatial dependence of soil enzyme activities along a slope Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J 62 1302 1308 CrossRef Google Scholar Bouwman, A.F., Fung, I., Matthews, E., John, J. 1993 Global analysis of the potential for N 2O production in natural soils Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7 557 597 CrossRef Google Scholar Clemens, J., Schillinger, M.P., Goldbach, H., Huwe, B. 1999 Spatial variability of N 2O emissions and soil parameters of an arable silt loam - a field study Biol. Fertil. Soils 28 403 406 Google Scholar
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