Advertisement

Effect of the displacement rate and inclination angle in steel fiber pullout tests

  • Manuel TarifaEmail author
  • Elisa Poveda
  • Vítor M. C. F. Cunha
  • Joaquim A. O. Barros
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper summarizes the results obtained in an experimental campaign on the effect of the displacement pullout rate and the inclination angle of the steel fiber pullout tests. For that purpose, specimens were obtained from a self-compacting concrete with a compressive strength of 86 MPa. In the experimental program, hooked-end steel fibers of 0.75 mm diameter and 60 mm length were used. Tests were executed with both hooked-end fibers, and smooth fibers obtained from the former by cutting the hooked end. For both type of fibers, their embedment length into concrete was 20 mm, and the influence of fiber inclination angle toward the load direction was investigated by adopting values of \(0^{\circ }\), \(30^{\circ }\) and \(60^{\circ }\). The tests were performed at displacement rates of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mm/s. The results have shown that the peak pullout load increased with the inclination angle, in particular for the smooth series. Furthermore, higher displacement rates led to a higher energy absorption capacity for the pullout of the smooth fibers, while the energy absorption remained almost stable for hooked-end fibers.

Keywords

Hooked-end steel fibers Smooth steel fibers Concrete Inclination angle Displacement pullout rate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The two first authors acknowledge the Financial support from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Spain, through the project BIA2015-68678-C2-1-R. M. Tarifa appreciates the financial support from the Department of Applied Mechanics and Project Engineering, UCLM (2018), and from the Programa propio de I+D+i de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid para realizar estancias de investigación internacional igual o superior a un mes (2019), to do two stays at the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal. E. Poveda acknowledges the funding from the International Campus of Excellence CYTEMA and the University of Castilla-La Mancha, throughout Ayudas para estancias en universidades y centros de investigación en el extranjero en 2019 en el ámbito del plan propio de investigación susceptibles de cofinanciación por el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Programa 010100021 to fund her stays in the University of Minho during 2018 and 2019, respectively. The authors thank the support of the Department of Civil Engineering and the Laboratory of the Structural Division (LEST), University of Minho. The last two authors would also to acknowledge the support provided by the project ICoSyTec (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-027990) financed by FCT and co-funded by FEDER through the Operational Competitiveness and Internationalization Programme (POCI). We also appreciate the supply of fibers by the company Bekaert.

References

  1. EN 12350-8 BE (2010) Testing fresh concrete. Self-compacting concrete. Slump-flow test, BSIGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdallah S, Fan M, Zhou X (2016) Effect of hooked-end steel fibres geometry on pull-out behaviour of ultra-high performance concrete. Int J Civil Environ Eng 10(12):6Google Scholar
  3. Abdallah S, Fan M, Zhou X (2017) Pull-out behaviour of hooked end steel fibres embedded in ultra-high performance mortar with various w/b ratios. Int J Concr Struct Mater 11(2):301–313.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40069-017-0193-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abrishambaf A, Barros JAO, Cunha VMCF, Frazão C (2017) Time dependent behaviour of fibre pull-out in self-compacting concrete. Cem Concr Compos 77:14–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abu-Lebdeh T, Hamoush S, Zornig B (2010) Rate effect on pullout behavior of steel fibers embedded in very-high strength concrete. Am J Eng Appl Sci 2:125–137.  https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2010.454.463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alwan JM, Naaman AE, Guerrero P (1999) Effect of mechanical clamping on the pull-out response of hooked steel fibers embedded in cementitious matrices. Concr Sci Eng 1:15–25Google Scholar
  7. Banthia N, Trottier JF (1991) Deformed steel fiber–cementitious matrix bond under impact. Cem Concr Res 1:158–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(91)90042-G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banthia N, Trottier JF (1994) Concrete reinforced with deformed steel fibers, part I: bond-slip mechanisms. ACI Mater J 91(5):435–446Google Scholar
  9. Baran E, Akis T, Yesilmen S (2012) Pull-out behavior of prestressing strands in steel fiber reinforced concrete. Constr Build Mater 28(1):362–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.08.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhutta A, Farooq M, Borges PHR, Banthia N (2018) Influence of fiber inclination angle on bond-slip behavior of different alkali-activated composites under dynamic and quasi-static loadings. Cem Concr Res 107:236–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2018.02.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bindiganavile V, Banthia N (2005) Impact response of the fiber-matrix bond in concrete. Can J Civil Eng 32(5):924–933.  https://doi.org/10.1139/l05-039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunha VMCF, Barros JAO, Sena-Cruz JM (2008) Bond-slip mechanisms of hooked-end steel fibers in self-compacting concrete, Materials Science Forum. Trans Tech Publ.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.587-588.877 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cunha VMCF, Barros JAO, Sena-Cruz JM (2010) Pullout behaviour of steel fibres in self compacting concrete. ASCE J Mater Civil Constr 22:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gokoz UN, Naaman AE (1981) Effect of strain-rate on the pull-out behaviour of fibres in mortar. Int J Cem Compos Lightweight Concr 3:187–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0262-5075(81)90051-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim DJ (2009) Strain rate effect on high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites using slip hardening high strength deformed steel fibers. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Michigan, Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim DJ, El-Tawil S, Naaman AE (2008) Loading rate effect on pullout behavior of deformed steel fibers. Concr Sci Eng 6:576–584Google Scholar
  17. Kim DJ, El-Tawil S, Naaman AE (2009) Rate-dependent tensile behavior of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites. Mater Struct 42(3):399–414.  https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-008-9390-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laranjeira F (2010) Designed-oriented constitutive model for steel fiber reinforced concrete. Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  19. Laranjeira F, Aguado A, Molins C (2010a) Predicting the pullout response of inclined straight steel fibers. Mater Struct 43(6):875–895.  https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-009-9553-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Laranjeira F, Molins C, Aguado A (2010b) Predicting the pullout response of inclined hooked steel fibers. Cem Concr Res 40(10):1471–1487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leung CKY, Ybanez N (1997) Pullout of inclined flexible fiber in cementitious composite. J Eng Mech 123(3):239–246.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1997)123:3(239) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Markovic I (2006) High-performance hybrid-fibre concrete: Development and utilisation. Ph.D. thesis, Delft UnivERSITY of Technology, Delft, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  23. Naaman AE, Namur GG, Alwan JM, Najm HS (1991a) Fiber pullout and bond slip I: analytical study. J Struct Eng 117(9):2769–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naaman AE, Namur GG, Alwan JM, Najm HS (1991b) Fiber pullout and bond slip. II: experimental validation. J Struct Eng 117(9):2791–2800.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1991)117:9(2791) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nammur G, Naaman AE (1989) Bond stress model for fiber reinforced-concrete based on bond stress-slip relationship. ACI Mater J 86(1):45–57Google Scholar
  26. Nieuwoudt PD, Boshoff WP (2017) Time-dependent pull-out behaviour of hooked-end steel fibres in concrete. Cem Concr Compos 79:133–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2017.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nonato Da Silva CA, Ciambella J, Barros JAO, Costa IG (2019) Analytical bond model for general type of reinforcements of finite embedment length in cracked cement based materials. Int J Solids Struct 167:36–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2019.02.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pompo A, Stupak PR, Nicolais L, Marchese B (1996) Analysis of steel fibre pull-out from a cement matrix using video photography. Cem Concr Compos 18:3–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-9465(95)00034-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Poveda E, Yu RC, Tarifa M, Ruiz G, Cunha VMCF, Barros JAO (2019) Rate effect in inclined fibres pull-out for smooth and hooked-end fibres: a numerical study. International Journal of Fracture.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10704-019-00404-7
  30. Robins P, Austin S, Jones P (2002) Pull-out behaviour of hooked steel fibres. Mater Struct 35(251):434–442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02483148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tai YS, El-Tawil S (2017) High loading-rate pullout behavior of inclined deformed steel fibers embedded in ultra-high performance concrete. Constr Build Mater 148:204–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tai YS, El-Tawil S, Chung TH (2016) Performance of deformed steel fibers embedded in ultra-high performance concrete subjected to various pullout rates. Cem Concr Res 89:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xu M, Hallinan B, Wille K (2016) Effect of loading rates on pullout behavior of high strength steel fibers embedded in ultra-high performance concrete. Cem Concr Compos 70:98–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.03.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del EspacioUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, C. y P., UCLMCiudad RealSpain
  3. 3.ISISE, Institute of Science and Innovation for Bio-Sustainability (IB-S), Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

Personalised recommendations