International Journal of Fracture

, Volume 179, Issue 1–2, pp 229–235

Evaluation of the Growth of Dislocations Density in Fatigue Loading Process via Electrical Resistivity Measurements

Letters in Fracture and Micromechanics

Abstract

The paper focuses on quantitative evaluation of the microstructural changes - growth of the dislocation density - in stainless steel specimens subjected to fatigue loading. We propose to use electrical resistivity measurements for this goal. Change in electrical resistance of the specimens has been monitored in dependence on the number of fatigue cycles and the relative growth of the dislocation density was calculated from these data and known values of the specific resistivity of dislocations for iron. We also estimated the growth of dislocation density using analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of etched specimens. This estimate however appears to be unreasonably low, so that SEM may be used for qualitative analysis only.

Keywords

dislocation density electrical resistivity fatigue 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmed J., Roberts S.G., Wilkinson A.J. (2006) Characterizing dislocation structure evolution during cyclic deformation using electron channeling contrast imaging. Philosophical Magazine 86: 4965–4981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Armas A., Krupp U., Balbi M., Herenu S., Marinelli M., Knobbe H. (2012) Growth of short cracks during low and high cycle fatigue in a duplex stainless steel. Int. J. of Fatigue 41: 95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown R.A. (1977) Electrical resistivity of dislocations in metals. J. Phys. F: Metal Phys, 7: 1283–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen Q.Z., Duggan B.J. (2004) On Cells and Microbands Formed in an Interstitial-Free Steel during Cold Rolling at Low to Medium Reductions. Metallurgical and materials transactions A 35: 3423–3430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eisenlohr P., Sadrabadi P., Blum W. (2008) Quantifying the distributions of dislocation spacings and cell sizes. J. Mater Sci., 43: 2700–2707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Field D.P., Merriman C., Allain-Bonasso N., Wagner F., Allain-Bonasso N. (2012) Quantification of dislocation structure heterogeneity in deformed polycrystals by EBSD. Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 20: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gay P., Hirsch P.b., Kelly A. (1953) The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X -Ray data. Acta metallurgica 1: 315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gutierrez-Urrutia I., Raabe D. (2012) Dislocation density measurement by electron channeling contrast imaging in a scanning electron microscope. Scripta Materialia, 66: 343–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoque M.E., Ford M.R., Roth J.T. (2005) Automated Image Analysis of Microstructure Changes in Metal Alloys. The int. society for optical engineering, 5679: 1–9Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hull, D. and Bacon, D. J. (2011) Introduction to Dislocations, Butterworth-Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karolik A.S., Luhvich A.A. (1994) Calculation of electrical resistivity produced by dislocations and grain boundaries in metals. J. Phys: Condens. Matter 6: 873–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malta D.P., Posthill J.B., Markunas R.J., Humphreys T.P. (1992) Low-defect- density germanium on silicon obtained by a novel growth phenomenon. Appl. Phys.Letters 60: 844–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shintani T., Murata Y. (2011) Evaluation of the dislocation density and dislocation character in cold rolled Type 304 steel determined by profile analysis of X- ray diffraction. Acta Materialia 59: 4314–4322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vogel F.L., Pfann W.G., Corey H.E., Thomas E.E. (1953) Observations of Dislocations in Lineage Boundaries in Gerinanium. The American Physical Society 90: 489–490Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watts, B.R. (1988a) The contribution of the long-range strain field of dislocations in metals to their electrical resistivity, J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 18, 1183-1195Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watts, B.R. (1988b) Calculation of electrical resistivity produced by dislocations in various metals, J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 18, 1197-1209.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yonenaga I., Taishi T., Huang X., Hoshikawa K. (2001) Dynamic characteristics of dislocations in highly borondoped silicon. J. Appl. Phys 89: 5788–5790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yulianto I., Omari M., Sevostianov I. (2012) Evaluation of changes in dislocation density in TI-CP2 in the process of quasi-static loading using electrical resistance measurement. Int. J. Fracture 175: 73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tanaka K., Watanabe T. (1972) An electrical resistivity study of lattice defects, Applied Physics, 11: 1429–1439Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA

Personalised recommendations