International Journal of Fracture

, Volume 146, Issue 1–2, pp 61–77 | Cite as

Mechanical characterization of Ti–5Al–2.5Sn ELI alloy at cryogenic and room temperatures

Original Paper

Abstract

An experimental campaign consisting of tensile and fracture tests at cryogenic and room temperatures has been conducted on a Ti–5Al–2.5Sn extra-low-interstitial (ELI) alloy. It has been assessed that, at decreasing testing temperature: Young’s modulus slightly increases; yield and failure strengths increase significantly; fracture toughness decreases. Since a ductile void growth to coalescence micromechanism always governs failure in the spanned temperature interval, crack growth is simulated by allowing for material nonlinearities in the process zone, where ductile tearing takes place. Numerical results have been obtained by modeling the response of the process zone through either a cohesive model or Gurson’s constitutive law for porous-ductile media. It is shown that the latter approach can accurately describe the failure mechanism at any test temperature and for any specimen geometry, whereas the former one is not able to account for stress triaxiality at the crack tip and therefore requires a new calibration anytime the specimen geometry is varied.

Keywords

Cryogenic testing Titanium alloys Ductile tearing Cohesive model Gurson’s model 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alessandria F, Broggi F and Todero M (2002). Mechanical characterization of the tie rods for the ATLAS B0 model coil. IEEE Trans Appl Supercon 12: 1701–1704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allix O and Corigliano A (1996). Modeling and simulation of crack propagation in mixed-modes interlaminar fracture specimens. Int J Fract 77: 111–140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AMS 4924 (2002) Titanium alloy bars, forgings, and rings 5Al-2.5Sn, Extra Low Interstitials Annealed. SAE InternationalGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM E111 (2004) Standard test method for Young’s modulus, tangent modulus, and chord modulus. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM E1450 (2003) Standard test method for tension testing of structural alloys in liquid helium. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM E1820 (2005) Standard test method for measurement of fracture toughness. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM E399 (2005) Standard test method for linear-elastic plain-strain fracture toughness K Ic of metallic materials. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  8. ASTM E8M (2004) Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  9. Bažant ZL and Pijaudier-Cabot G (1988). Nonlocal continuum damage, localization instability and convergence. ASME J Appl Mech 55: 287–293 Google Scholar
  10. Briottet L, Ambard A and Guichard D (2001). Ti-6Al-4V plastic deformation at low temperatures: a FEM analysis beyond the onset of instability. Modelling Simul Mater Sci Eng 9: 259–277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christian L and Hurlich A (1967). Mechanical properties of titanium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Adv Cryog Eng 13: 318–333 Google Scholar
  12. Christian L, Hurlich A, Chafey JE and Watson JF (1963). Effects of impurity elements and cold rolling on the mechanical properties of Titanium-5Al-2.5Sn alloy at room and cryogenic temperatures. ASTM Proc 63: 578–596 Google Scholar
  13. Comi C, Mariani S and Perego U (2007). An extended FE strategy for transition from continuum damage to mode I cohesive crack propagation. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 31: 213–238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corigliano A and Ricci M (2001). Rate-dependent interface models: formulation and numerical applications. Int J Solids Struct 38: 547–576 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corigliano A and Mariani S (2001a). Parameter identification of a time-dependent elastic-damage interface model for the simulation of debonding in composites. Compos Sci Technol 61: 191–203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corigliano A and Mariani S (2001b). Simulation of damage in composites by means of interface models: parameter identification. Compos Sci Technol 61: 2299–2315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corigliano A, Mariani S and Orsatti B (2000). Identification of Gurson-Tvergaard material model parameters via Kalman filtering technique - I. Theory. Int J Fract 104: 349–373 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Costanzo F (1998). A continuum theory of cohesive zone models: deformation and constitutive equations. Int J Eng Sci 36: 1763–1792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Estrin Y and Kubin LP (1980). Criterion for thermomechanical instability of low temperature plastic deformation. Scripta Metall 14: 1359–1364 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gurson AL (1977). Continuum theory of ductile rupture by void nucleation and growth: Part I. Yield criteria and flow rules for porous ductile media. ASME J Eng Mater Technol 99: 2–15 Google Scholar
  21. Irwin GR (1960) Plastic zone near a crack and fracture toughness. In: 7th Sagamore Advanced Materials Research Conference. Syracuse University PressGoogle Scholar
  22. Kailasam M and Ponte Castañeda P (1998). A general constitutive theory for linear and nonlinear particulate media with microstructure evolution. J Mech Phys Solids 46: 427–465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalman RE and Bucy RS (1961). New results in linear filtering and prediction theory. ASME J Basic Eng 83D: 95–108 Google Scholar
  24. Kalman RE (1960). A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems. ASME J Basic Eng 82D: 35–45 Google Scholar
  25. Ljung L (1999) System Identification. Theory for the user. Prentice Hall PTRGoogle Scholar
  26. Mariani S and Corigliano A (2001). Anisotropic behaviour of porous-ductile media. Int J Solids Struct 38: 2427–2451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mariani S and Corigliano A (2005). Impact induced composite delamination: state and parameter identification via joint and dual extended Kalman filters. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 194: 5242–5272 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mariani S (1998) Simulation of ductile fracture: material models, computational aspects and parameter identification. PhD Thesis, Politecnico di MilanoGoogle Scholar
  29. Nagai K, Ishikawa K, Mizoguchi T and Ito Y (1986). Strength and fracture toughness of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy at cryogenic temperature. Cryogenics 26: 19–23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Needleman A and Tvergaard V (1984). An analysis of ductile rupture in notched bars. J Mech Phys Solids 32: 461–490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ogata T, Nagai K and Ishikawa K (1994). VAMAS tests of structural materials at liquid helium temperatures. Adv Cryog Eng 40: 1191–1198 Google Scholar
  32. Ono Y, Yuri T, Sumiyoshi H, Matsuoka S and Ogata T (2003). Effect of grain size on high-cycle fatigue properties in alpha-type titanium alloy at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenics 43: 483–489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ortiz M and Pandolfi A (1999). Finite-deformation irreversible cohesive elements for three-dimensional crack-propagation analysis. Int J Num Methods Eng 44: 1267–1282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rao BN and Acharya AR (1992). Evaluation of fracture toughness through J{Ic testing with standard compact tension specimens. Exp Tech 16: 37–39 Google Scholar
  35. (1983). Materials at low temperatures. American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH Google Scholar
  36. Rice JR (1968). A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks. ASME J Appl Mech 35: 379–386 Google Scholar
  37. Ruggieri C, Panontin TL and Dodds RH (1996). Numerical modeling of ductile crack growth in 3-D using computational cell elements. Int J Fract 82: 67–95 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Samudrala O, Huang Y and Rosakis AJ (2002). Subsonic and intersonic mode II crack propagation with a rate-dependent cohesive zone. J Mech Phys Solids 50: 1231–1268 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saxena A and Hudak SJ (1978). Review and extension of compliance information for common crack growth specimens. Int J Fract 14: 453–468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Siegmund T and Brocks W (2000). A numerical study on the correlation between the work of separation and the dissipation rate in ductile fracture. Eng Fract Mech 67: 139–154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sun QY and Gu HC (2001). Tensile and low-cycle fatigue behavior of commercially pure titanium and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy at 293 and 77 K. Mater Sci Eng A316: 80–86 Google Scholar
  42. Tvergaard V (1981). Influence of voids on shear band instabilities under plane strain conditions. Int J Fract 17: 389–407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tvergaard V (1982). Ductile fracture by cavity nucleation between larger voids. J Mech Phys Solids 30: 265–286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tvergaard V (1990). Material failure by void growth to coalescence. Adv Appl Mech 27: 83–151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Umezawa O, Nagai K and Ishikawa K (1990a). Subsurface crack initiation in high cycle fatigue of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn extra-low interstitial alloy at liquid helium temperature. Mater Sci Eng A129: 217–221 Google Scholar
  46. Umezawa O, Nagai K and Ishikawa K (1990b). Transmission electron microscopy study of high cycle fatigue deformation in Ti-5Al-2.5Sn extra-low interstitial alloy at cryogenic temperatures. Mater Sci Eng A129: 223–227 Google Scholar
  47. Vedrine P, Alessandria F, Arnaud M, Berriaud C, Berthier R, Dudarev A, Leone A, Levesy B, Mayri C, Pabot Y, Rey JM, Sun Z, Ten Kate H, Volpini G and Zaitsev Y (2004). Manufacturing and integration progress of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet at CERN. IEEE Trans Appl Supercon 14: 491–494 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Xia L and Shih CF (1995). Ductile crack growth-II. Void nucleation and geometry effects on macroscopic fracture behaviour. J Mech Phys Solids 43: 1953–1981 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Xia L, Shih CF and Hutchinson JW (1995). A computational approach to ductile crack growth under large scale yielding conditions. J Mech Phys Solids 43: 389–413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zaiser M (1995). Stability criteria for plastic deformation at low temperatures. Scripta Metall Mater 32: 1261–1268 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zaiser M (1997). The influence of strain-rate fluctuations on the stability of low-temperature plastic deformation. Acta Mater 45: 1695–1704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ingegneria StrutturalePolitecnico di MilanoMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations