Foundations of Physics

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 92–109 | Cite as

Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State

  • R. SrikanthEmail author


Quantum bit commitment is insecure in the standard non-relativistic quantum cryptographic framework, essentially because Alice can exploit quantum steering to defer making her commitment. Two assumptions in this framework are that: (a) Alice knows the ensembles of evidence E corresponding to either commitment; and (b) system E is quantum rather than classical. Here, we show how relaxing assumption (a) or (b) can render her malicious steering operation indeterminable or inexistent, respectively. Finally, we present a secure protocol that relaxes both assumptions in a quantum teleportation setting. Without appeal to an ontological framework, we argue that the protocol’s security entails the reality of the quantum state, provided retrocausality is excluded.


Mistrustful quantum cryptography Bit commitment Reality of quantum state 



The author thanks DST-SERB, Govt. of India, for financial support provided through the project EMR/2016/004019.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific ResearchBengaluruIndia

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