Hamiltonian Formulation of Statistical Ensembles and Mixed States of Quantum and Hybrid Systems
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Representation of quantum states by statistical ensembles on the quantum phase space in the Hamiltonian form of quantum mechanics is analyzed. Various mathematical properties and some physical interpretations of the equivalence classes of ensembles representing a mixed quantum state in the Hamiltonian formulation are examined. In particular, non-uniqueness of the quantum phase space probability density associated with the quantum mixed state, Liouville dynamics of the probability densities and the possibility to represent the reduced states of bipartite systems by marginal distributions are discussed in detail. These considerations are used to study ensembles of hybrid quantum-classical systems. In particular, nonlinear evolution of a single hybrid system in a pure state and unequal evolutions of initially equivalent ensembles are discussed in the context of coupled hybrid systems.
KeywordsStatistical ensembles Hybrid systems
We acknowledge support by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Serbia, contract Nos. 171006, 171017, 171020, 171038, 45016 and by COST (Action MP1006). We thank the referee for his detailed suggestions.
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