Foundations of Physics

, Volume 41, Issue 10, pp 1569–1596 | Cite as

T Violation and the Unidirectionality of Time

  • Joan A. VaccaroEmail author


An increasing number of experiments at the Belle, BNL, CERN, DAΦNE and SLAC accelerators are confirming the violation of time reversal invariance (T). The violation signifies a fundamental asymmetry between the past and future and calls for a major shift in the way we think about time. Here we show that processes which violate T symmetry induce destructive interference between different paths that the universe can take through time. The interference eliminates all paths except for two that represent continuously forwards and continuously backwards time evolution. Evidence from the accelerator experiments indicates which path the universe is effectively following. This work may provide fresh insight into the long-standing problem of modeling the dynamics of T violation processes. It suggests that T violation has previously unknown, large-scale physical effects and that these effects underlie the origin of the unidirectionality of time. It may have implications for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally it provides a view of the quantum nature of time itself.


CP violation T violation Kaons Arrow of time Quantum interference Quantum foundations Wheeler-DeWitt equation 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Quantum DynamicsGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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