Foundations of Chemistry

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 153–173 | Cite as

Spiral as the fundamental graphic representation of the Periodic Law. Blocks of elements as the autonomic parts of the Periodic System

  • Naum S. ImyanitovEmail author


The spiral form of the Periodic Law is proposed as its fundamental graphic representation. This idea is based on the fact that the spiral is the most appropriate form in description transitions from simple to complicated (advancement, evolution). The spiral is easily obtained from the linear succession of the elements when they are ranged by growing nuclear charge. The spiral can be simply transformed (by compression, bending, cutting) into many other graphic representations, including tables. This paper suggests the conception of the autonomy of blocks. This autonomy is clearly seen in the variation of the outer electronic shells, in the width and the height of the blocks, as well as the number and properties of elements included therein. The regularities in the changes of element properties are pronounced in certain blocks but actually absent in others. The blocks can be permuted to obtain full-fledged versions of Periodic Table. The new stage of the verification of the blocks autonomy is the use of the total number of the differentiating electrons (s electrons in the atom of s block, p electrons in p block, etc.) as an independent variable in describing the properties of the elements and their compounds. Consideration of individual blocks made it possible to deduce the periodic equations valid for all the elements within each block. Formulation of the Periodic Law is advanced: while describing characteristic determining the properties of the elements, the nuclear charge is replaced by the total number of differentiating electrons. Two modifications of the conventional Periodic Table are obtained by minimal changes. The first one shows the secondary and the additional periodicites. Another table shows the total number of differentiating electrons for each element.


Periodic System Blocks of elements Differentiating electrons Graphic representation of evolution Periodic equation 


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.S.V. Lebedev Research Institute for Synthetic RuberFederal State Unitary EnterpriseSt. PetersburgRussia

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