Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 503–527 | Cite as

Strategies for improving a long-established terminal’s performance: a simulation study of a Turkish container terminal

  • Osman Kulak
  • Olcay Polat
  • Rico Gujjula
  • Hans-Otto Günther


Due to a long-lasting increase in global trade, only interrupted by the late-2000s economic crisis, container traffic has grown dramatically. As a result, new terminals have opened and existing terminals face much higher container handling than before. In order to meet these challenges, one of the biggest container terminals in Turkey has begun to reconsider its terminal operations and to achieve improvements of its overall logistics performance. Because the factors impacting the terminal’s performance are highly interrelated, a simulation model was developed to analyze the terminal operations, to identify potential bottleneck resources and to highlight directions for the future development of the configuration and the operational control system. For a long-established terminal like the one considered in this study the options for improving the overall performance are limited by the geographical dimensions and by the existing terminal equipment. By use of the simulation model the terminal operations are evaluated under different workload scenarios and alternative configurations are tested in order to support strategic decisions on the terminal’s development.


Simulation Performance evaluation Seaport container terminal Maritime transport 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osman Kulak
    • 1
  • Olcay Polat
    • 1
  • Rico Gujjula
    • 2
  • Hans-Otto Günther
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Production ManagementTU BerlinBerlinGermany

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