Steroidogenesis and its regulation in teleost-a review

  • Anbazhagan Rajakumar
  • Balasubramanian SenthilkumaranEmail author


Steroid hormones modulate several important biological processes like metabolism, stress response, and reproduction. Steroidogenesis drives reproductive function wherein development and differentiation of undifferentiated gonads into testis or ovary, and their growth and maturation, are regulated. Steroidogenesis occurs in gonadal and non-gonadal tissues like head kidney, liver, intestine, and adipose tissue in teleosts. This process is regulated differently through multi-level modulation of promoter motif transcription factor regulation of steroidogenic enzyme genes to ultimately control enzyme activity and turnover. In view of this, understanding teleostean steroidogenesis provides major inputs for technological innovation of pisciculture. Unlike higher vertebrates, steroidal intermediates and shift in steroidogenesis is critical for gamete maturation in teleosts, more essentially oogenesis. Considering these characteristics, this review highlights the promoter regulation of steroidogenic enzyme genes by several transcription factors that are involved in teleostean steroidogenesis. It also addresses different methodologies involved in promoter regulation studies together with glucocorticoids and androgen relationship with reference to teleosts.


Gonadal steroids Testosterone Estradiol Testis Ovary Promoter 



BS is a recipient of Department of Biotechnology-TATA innovation fellowship (BT/HRD/35/01/02/2013). AR is thankful to Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, for Junior and Senior Research Fellowships.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anbazhagan Rajakumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Animal BiologySchool of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, P.O. Central UniversityHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Present Address: Section on Molecular Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)National Institutes of Health (NIH)BethesdaUSA

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