Individual and combined effects of salinity and lipopolysaccharides on the immune response of juvenile Takifugu fasciatus
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and salinity are important variables in aquatic environments. High concentration of LPS and large changes in salinity seriously threat the survival of a variety of organisms, including fish. To reveal the effects of salinity and LPS on a fish immune response, we measured the immune-related parameters (total leukocyte count, total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations, complement C3 concentration, and lysozyme activity) and genes (the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and SOCS1–3 at the mRNA and protein levels) of juvenile Takifugu fasciatus exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or LPS (25 μg mL−1) under different salinities (0, 15, and 30 ppt) for 24 h. Changes in key immunological indicators suggested that the LPS challenge induced considerable damage to T. fasciatus, whereas an increase in salinity mitigated the harmful effects. Moreover, although the immune responses in blood and other selected tissues (gill and kidney) were suppressed with an increase in salinity, the increased response in liver in saltwater enabled T. fasciatus to conquer large salinity variation during migration. The appropriate addition of salts appeared to be a sensible strategy to mitigate LPS-induced toxicity in the aquaculture of T. fasciatus.
KeywordsSalinity Lipopolysaccharides Immune response Takifugu fasciatus
- T. fasciatus
Tumor necrosis factor-α
Suppressors of cytokine signaling
Reactive oxygen species
Quantitative real-time PCR
Acute kidney injury
The authors received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31800436), The National Spark Program of China (2015GA690040), The National Finance Projects of Agro-technical popularization (TG15-003), Project Foundation of the Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institution (PAPD), National Key R & D Program of China (2018YFD0900301), and Natural Science Foundation(NSF) of Jiangsu Province of China (BK20180728).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.
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