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Localization of three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain and pituitary of the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus

  • Masafumi AmanoEmail author
  • Noriko Amiya
  • Kataaki Okubo
  • Junpei Yamashita
  • Ayae Kuriu
  • Ayano Yasuta
  • Naoyuki Yamamoto
  • Yoshitaka Sakakura
Article

Abstract

The localization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain and pituitary of the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to understand its neuroendocrine system. The genome assembly of K. marmoratus did not have any sequence encoding GnRH1, but sequences encoding GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH) were found. Therefore, GnRH1 was identified by in silico cloning. The deduced amino acid sequence of the K. marmoratus GnRH1 (mature peptide) was identical to that of the medaka GnRH. GnRH1 neurons were detected in the ventral part of the preoptic nucleus by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, and GnRH1-immunoreactive (ir) fibers were observed throughout the brain. GnRH1-ir fibers were in close contact with luteinizing hormone (LH)-ir cells in the pituitary using double immunohistochemistry. GnRH2 neurons were detected in the midbrain tegmentum by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Although GnRH2-ir fibers were observed throughout the brain, they were not detected in the pituitary. GnRH3 neurons were detected in the lateral part of the ventral telencephalic area by both methods. GnRH3-ir fibers were observed throughout the brain, and a few GnRH3-ir fibers were in close contact with LH-ir cells in the pituitary. These results indicate that GnRH1 and possibly GnRH3 are responsible for gonadal maturation through LH secretion and that all three forms of GnRH function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain of K. marmoratus.

Keywords

GnRH GTH Immunohistochemistry In situ hybridization Self-fertilizing fish Brain 

Abbreviations

CE

cerebellar corpus

cre

cerebellar crest

D

dorsal telencephalic area

Dc

central part of dorsal telencephalic area

Dd

dorsal part of dorsal telencephalic area

dDm

dorsal region of Dm

Dl

lateral part of dorsal telencephalic area

Dm

medial part of dorsal telencephalic area

Dp

posterior part of dorsal telencephalic area

DT

dorsal thalamus

E

entopeduncular nucleus

EG

granular eminence

GL

granular layer

GR

corpus glomerulosum pars rotunda

MC

Mauthner’s cell

NFLM

nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle

NLT

lateral tuberal nucleus

NM

medial nucleus of rhombencephalic octavolateral area

NRL

nucleus of lateral recess

OB

olfactory bulb

OT

optic tectum

PCL

Purkinje cell layer

PGm

medial preglomerular nucleus

PGZ

periventricular gray zone of optic tectum

Pit

pituitary

PO

preoptic nucleus

PTh

prethalamic nucleus

RF

reticular formation

SCN

suprachiasmatic nucleus

TL

longitudinal torus

TS

semicircular torus

Vc

central part of ventral telencephalic area

Vd

dorsal part of ventral telencephalic area

vDm

ventral region of Dm

vem

mesencephalic ventricle

ver

rhombencephalic ventricle

Vl

lateral part of ventral telencephalic area

VM

ventromedial thalamic nucleus

Vp

posterior part of ventral telencephalic area

Vv

ventral part of ventral telencephalic area

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Akio Shimizu for a gift of universal antisera raised against mummichog FSHβ and LHβ.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Marine BiosciencesKitasato UniversitySagamiharaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Fish Biology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental SciencesNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan

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