Identification of proteins differentially expressed in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after hypoxic stress by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

  • Zhan-Ning Xu
  • Guo-Dong Zheng
  • Cheng-Bin Wu
  • Xia-Yun JiangEmail author
  • Shu-Ming ZouEmail author


Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the differential proteomics of grass carp gills after hypoxic stress to better understand the roles of proteins in the hypoxic response and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Protein spots were obtained from a hypoxia-stressed group (372 ± 11 individuals) and a control group (406 ± 14 individuals) using the lmage Master 2D Platinum 7.0 analysis software. Fifteen protein spots were expressed differentially in the hypoxia-stressed group and varied significantly after exposure to the hypoxic conditions. In addition, these differential proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and then searched in a database. We found the expression and upregulation of the toll-like receptor 4, ephx1 protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; however, the expression of the keratin type II cytoskeletal 8, type I cytokeratin, ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog, thyroid hormone receptor alpha-A, ATP synthase subunit beta, citrate synthase, tropomyosin 2, and tropomyosin 3 were downregulated. Six proteins were found in the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway. We concluded that the grass carp gill is involved in response processes, including energy generation, metabolic processes, cellular structure, antioxidation, immunity, and signal transduction, to hypoxic stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to conduct a proteomics analysis of expressed proteins in the gills of grass carp, and this study will help increase the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in hypoxic stress responses in fish at the protein level.


Grass carp Hypoxic stress Gill Two-dimensional electrophoresis Mass spectrum 


Funding information

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31572220), the Key Technologies Research and Development Program of China (2012BAD26B02), and the Shanghai University Knowledge Service Platform (ZF1206).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of AgricultureShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Genetics and Breeding Center for Blunt Snout Bream, Ministry of AgricultureShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Engineering Research Center of AquacultureShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina

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