Changes in digestive enzyme activities during early ontogeny of Seriola rivoliana
This study contributes to basic knowledge on the development of larval digestive enzyme activities of Seriola rivoliana, a carnivorous species that has shown high mortality in larval stage. The study was conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions until larvae reached 30 days after hatching (DAH). The specific activity of amylase and pepsin was analysed by spectrophotometric methods, and lipase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and alkaline phosphatase by fluorometry. The results showed that S. rivoliana larvae had different enzyme patterns depending on their developmental stage, and also when exogenous food was administered (rotifers and Artemia). At hatching (2.98 ± 0.14 mm SL), lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were detected, but the last two enzymes showed an activity close to zero. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase and alkaline phosphatase sharply increased their activities after starting the first feeding. Amylase activity was not detected until 5 DAH (3.51 ± 0.18 mm SL) and had a peak on day 15 (4.59 ± 0.39 mm SL); no activity was observed from then on. Pepsin activity was detected approximately at 15 DAH, showing a constant increase onwards. Trypsin had a peak on day 15 and then decreased on the following days. Chymotrypsin had the highest peak at 5 DAH, then a sharp decrease on day seven (3.88 ± 0.11 mm SL), and it increased gradually until day 30 (11.71 ± 1.59 mm SL). Lipase showed the highest activity at 15 DAH and then decreased its value. Finally, alkaline phosphatase showed the highest value at 3 DAH (3.62 ± 0.06 mm SL); then, a severe decrease was observed with activity stability on the following days. In conclusion, S. rivoliana larvae had a similar pattern as that observed in other marine-carnivorous fish larvae, so it could be considered as juvenile at 20 DAH in terms of digestive physiology; based on our results and previous study, the weaning process could start after this age, which would allow establishing a co-feeding protocol using inert diet.
KeywordsAlmaco Jack Fish larvae Ontogeny Pepsin Trypsin Amylase Lipase Alkaline phosphatase
The authors are thankful to Kampachi Farms for providing fertilised eggs; Patricia Hinojosa Baltazar for technical assistance in biochemical analysis; Marcos Quiñones, Delfino Barajas and Pablo Ormart for technical support on larviculture; and Diana Fischer for editorial services.
Funding was provided by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT grant 157763). A.T. is a recipient of CONACYT fellowship (grant 335728) and J.S.L. is a recipient of AMEXCID fellowship (grant 811-06-9616).
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