Interactive effects of temperature and salinity on the survival, oxidative stress, and Na+/K+–ATPase activity of newly hatched obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) larvae
Obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) is an anadromous fish widely distributed around the coastal and inland rivers in East Asia. T. obscurus often encounters fluctuations in temperature and salinity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the interactions of temperature and salinity on survival and oxidative stress response of newly hatched T. obscurus larvae. A combination of three temperatures (19, 25, and 31 °C) and three salinities (0, 10, and 20 ppt) was applied for 96 h under laboratory conditions. The newly hatched larvae could not tolerate 31 °C for 96 h. No death was recorded at other temperatures during this experiment. Malondialdehyde concentrations increased significantly after 6 h of exposure to high salinity (10 and 20 ppt) and then decreased until the end of the experiment at each temperature. The highest superoxide dismutase activity was observed under the exposure to 20 ppt for 24 h at 31 °C. Na+/K+–ATPase activity significantly increased as salinity increased, especially at low temperatures. With the prolong of exposure time, the integrated biomarker response (IBR) values showed an increase until 48 h and then declined at 96 h in most treatments. The largest IBR value appeared when larvae were exposed to the highest temperature and salinity for 24 h. Our study indicated that high temperature with high salinity may negatively affect the early development of T. obscurus and their combined effects should be considered in the larvae culture.
KeywordsTemperature Salinity Takifugu obscurus Survival Oxidative stress Na+/K+–ATPase activity
This investigation was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370429) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
Compliance with ethical standards
All experiments were approved by and carried out in accordance with the guidelines of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) of Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China (Research permit number: SYXK2015-0028).
- Bœuf G, Payan P (2001) How should salinity influence fish growth? Comp Biochem Physiol C 130:411–423Google Scholar
- Han KN, Yoshimatsu T (1997) Early developmental stages in laboratory-reared puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes. Sci Bull Fac Agr Kyushu Univ 51:157–165Google Scholar
- Kim JH, Dahms HU, Rhee JS, Lee YM, Lee J, Han KN, Lee JS (2010a) Expression profiles of seven glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in cadmium-exposed river pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus). Comp Biochem Physiol C 151:99–106Google Scholar
- Kim JH, Rhee JS, Lee JS, Dahms HU, Lee J, Han KN, Lee JS (2010b) Effect of cadmium exposure on expression of antioxidant gene transcripts in the river pufferfish, Takifugu obscurus (Tetraodontiformes). Comp Biochem Physiol C 152:473–479Google Scholar
- Kinne O (1970) Marine ecology: a comprehensive integrated treatise on life in oceans and coastal waters volume I: environmental factors. Wiley, London, pp 683–1244Google Scholar
- Lushchak VI, Bagnyukova TV (2006a) Temperature increase results in oxidative stress in goldfish tissues. 1. Indices of oxidative stress. Comp Biochem Physiol C 143:30–35Google Scholar
- Lushchak VI, Bagnyukova TV (2006b) Temperature increase results in oxidative stress in goldfish tissues. 2. Antioxidant and associated enzymes. Comp Biochem Physiol C 143:36–41Google Scholar
- Martínez-Alvarez RM, Hidalgo MC, Domezain A, Morales AE, García-Gallego M, Sanz A (2003) Physiological changes of sturgeon Acipenser naccarii caused by increasing environmental salinity. J Exp Biol 205:3699–3706Google Scholar
- Tsangaris C, Hatzianestis I, Catsiki VA, Kormas KA, Strogyloudi E, Neofitou C, Andral B, Galgani F (2011) Active biomonitoring in Greek coastal waters: application of the integrated biomarker response index in relation to contaminant levels in caged mussels. Sci Total Environ 412:359–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Tang HX, Zhang XX, Xue XF, Zhu XX, Chen YF, Yang Z (2018) Mitigation of nitrite toxicity by increased salinity is associated with multiple physiological responses: a case study using an economically important model species, the juvenile obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus). Environ Pollut 232:137–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar