Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 573–582 | Cite as

Effects of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on growth performance and non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum fed diets with low or adequate phosphorus levels

  • Qiyou Xu
  • Delbert M. GatlinIII


This study evaluated the effects of α-ketoglutarate (AKG) on the growth performance, body, and skeletal composition, as well as non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed adequate or low-phosphorus diets. A 2 × 2 factorial design was arranged with two levels of total phosphorus (1.0 or 1.6%) and two levels (0 or 1%) of AKG. Each diet was fed to red drum in four replicate 110-L aquaria (15 fish/aquarium) twice daily for 7 weeks. The results indicated that the low-P diets significantly (P < 0.05) decreased weight gain, feed efficiency, and condition factor of red drum, but increased moisture content and decreased ash content of whole body, as well as decreased ash content of skeletal tissue and decreased plasma lysozyme. Supplementation of AKG significantly improved the fillet yield and plasma lysozyme and tended to improve neutrophil oxidative radical production (P = 0.097). Based on these results, phosphorus level had the greatest effect on growth performance and non-specific immunity of red drum, while AKG supplementation had limited positive effects on immunological responses and fillet yield of juvenile red drum.


Phosphorus Alpha-ketoglutarate Red drum Growth performance Skeleton composition Non-specific immunity 



Special thanks to Mr. Brian Ray, facility manager of the Texas A&M University Aquacultural Research and Teaching Facility as well as visiting professors, and graduate students for their assistance. We are also grateful to Texas A&M AgriLife Research, and the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences for supporting this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research InstituteChinese Academy of Fishery SciencesHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences and Intercollegiate Faculty of NutritionTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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