Some immunological responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerling to acute extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz)
- 66 Downloads
Increasing of anthropogenic electromagnetic fields in aquatic environments has been recently become the core of attention. In this study, the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz) on immune status and metabolic markers of common carp fingerling was assessed. The fish were exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields at four intensities of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mT only once for 2 h; then, they were reared for 60 days. Results showed that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were increased with an increase in the electromagnetic field intensity on 15 and 60 days post exposure. A significant increase was obtained in these enzyme levels in all the tested intensities compared to the control one (p < 0.05), with a maximum value measured in 2-mT trail. Conversely, with an increasing in the electromagnetic intensity, the levels of C3, C4, and lysozyme were reduced in all the treated groups in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). The results suggested a significant impact of electromagnetic on fish immunophysiological functions. Therefore, it is required to have serious attention in aquatic ecosystems.
KeywordsElectromagnetic fields Cyprinus carpio Metabolic enzymes Nonspecific immunity
A special thank goes to laboratory staff of the Science and Research Branch, IAU (Tehran, Iran). The authors also thank Mr. Fardin Komai for his help with the language correction of this paper.
- Ahlbom A, Bridges J, Rd S, Hillert L, Juutilainen J, Mattsson MO, Neubauer G, Schüz J, Simko M, Bromen K (2008) Possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health—opinion of the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Toxicology 246:248–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Büyükuslu N, Çelik Ö, Atak Ç (2006) The effect of magnetic field on the activity of superoxide dismutase. J Cell Mol Biol 5:57–62Google Scholar
- Ibrahim NK, Gharib OA (2010) The protective effect of antioxidants on oxidative stress in rats exposed to the 950 MHz electromagnetic field. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 3:1143–1155Google Scholar
- Jiminez B, Stegeman J (1990) Detoxification enzymes as indicator of environmental stress on fishes. Am Fish Soc Symp 8:69–79Google Scholar
- Kheifets L, Bowmann JD, Checkoway H, Feychting M, Harrington JM, Kavert R, Marsh G, Mezei G, Renew DC, Wijngaarden EV (2009) Future needs of occupational epidemiology of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: review and recommendations. Occup Environ Med 66:72–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nafisi S, Bafande Y, Hobbenaghi R, Majedi Asl L (2010) Influence of electromagnetic fields of two phases square wave with low frequency on serum ALT and AST levels and histochemistry of hepatocytes glycogen. Glob Vet 5:204–208Google Scholar
- Nofouzi K, Sheikhzadeh N, Mohammad-Zadeh Jassur D, Ashrafi-Helan J (2015) Influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth performance, innate immune response, biochemical parameters and disease resistance in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Physiol Biochem 41:721–731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Redlarski G, Lewczuk B, Żak A, Koncicki A, Krawczuk M, Piechocki J, Jakubiuk K, Tojza P, Jaworski J, Ambroziak D, Skarbek Ł, Gradolewski D (2015) The influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms: historical trends and forecasting changes. Biomed Res Int p 18 https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/234098
- Soltani M, Mirzargar SS (2013) Effect of tricainemethanesulfonate (MS222), clove oil and electro-anaesthesia on respiratory burst activity in whole blood and serum alternative complement response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the narcosis stage. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34:692–696CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tort L, Balasch JC, Mackenzie S (2003) Fish immune system. A crossroads between innate and adaptive responses. Immunologia 22:277–286Google Scholar