Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 21–34 | Cite as

Citral and linalool chemotypes of Lippia alba essential oil as anesthetics for fish: a detailed physiological analysis of side effects during anesthetic recovery in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)

  • Carine de Freitas SouzaEmail author
  • Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera
  • Adriane Erbice Bianchini
  • Elisia Gomes da Silva
  • Rosa Helena Veraz Mourão
  • Lenise Vargas Flores da Silva
  • Denise Schmidt
  • Berta Maria Heinzmann
  • Bernardo BaldisserottoEmail author


The viability using Lippia alba essential oil as an anesthetic for fish was studied, particularly with respect to physiological effects during recovery. Anesthesia of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) using 100 and 300 μL L−1 of two different chemotypes of L. alba essential oil (citral EO-C and linalool EO-L) prevented the increase of plasma cortisol levels caused by handling, but did not avoid alterations in energetic metabolism. Silver catfish did not have increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species in the kidney and liver during recovery after anesthesia with either EO, avoiding lipid damage. On the other hand, fish anesthetized with EO-C showed higher protein carbonylation levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities and non-protein thiol group levels in both tissues compared to controls. Our results suggest that both oils show antioxidant capacity, but anesthesia with EO-L does not cause damage to lipids or proteins, only temporary changes, typical of physiological adjustments during recovery from anesthesia. Therefore, EO-L is an effective anesthetic for silver catfish with fewer side effects than EO-C.


Teleosts Anesthesia Cortisol Metabolism Oxidative stress Tissue damage 



The authors are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico (CNPq), Comissão de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and INCT-ADAPTA (CNPq).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carine de Freitas Souza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera
    • 2
  • Adriane Erbice Bianchini
    • 1
  • Elisia Gomes da Silva
    • 1
  • Rosa Helena Veraz Mourão
    • 3
  • Lenise Vargas Flores da Silva
    • 4
  • Denise Schmidt
    • 5
  • Berta Maria Heinzmann
    • 6
  • Bernardo Baldisserotto
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Fisiologia e FarmacologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSMSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em FarmacologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSMSanta MariaBrazil
  3. 3.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia ExperimentalUniversidade Federal do Oeste do Pará – UFOPASantarémBrazil
  4. 4.Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das ÁguasUniversidade Federal do Oeste do Pará – UFOPASantarémBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Agronomia e Ciências AmbientaisUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM, Centro de Educação Superior Norte do Rio Grande do SulFrederico WestphalenBrazil
  6. 6.Departamento de Farmácia IndustrialUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSMSanta MariaBrazil

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