Effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
- 281 Downloads
The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout juveniles (42.6 ± 2.3 g average body weight) were randomly distributed into six tanks at two stocking densities (low stocking density (LD) = 20 kg m−3 and high stocking density (HD) = 80 kg m−3). Both treatments were performed in triplicate tanks for a period of 60 days. High stocking density caused a reduction in the growth performance compared with LD fish. Lysozyme activity increased with stocking density, while serum complement activity presented the opposite pattern. Serum cortisol and total protein levels did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental groups. The fish reared at high stocking density showed significantly lower osmolality and globulin values but higher albumin level. The HD group had significantly higher activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde content in the liver when compared to the LD group. Comparative proteomics was used to determine the proteomic responses in livers of rainbow trout reared at high stocking density for 60 days. Out of nine protein spots showing altered abundance (>1.5-folds, P < 0.05), eight spots were successfully identified. Two proteins including apolipoprotein A-I-2 precursor and mitochondrial stress-70 protein were found to increase in HD group. The spots found to decrease in the HD group were identified as follows: 2-peptidylprolyl isomerase A, two isoforms of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an unnamed protein product similar to fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, and serum albumin 1 protein.
KeywordsCulture density Immunity Antioxidant capacity Chronic stress Proteomics
We would like to thank Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology for supporting this work under research grant contract no. 145.
- Eckert R, Randall DJ, Burggren WW, French K (1997) Eckert animal physiology: mechanisms and adaptations. New York: WH Freeman and CompanyGoogle Scholar
- Laursen DC, Silva PIM, Larsen BK, Höglund E (2013) High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggests chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout. Physiol Behav 122:147–154. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.08.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trenzado CE, Morales AE, Palma JM, de la Higuera M (2009) Blood antioxidant defenses and hematological adjustments in crowded/uncrowded rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed on diets with different levels of antioxidant vitamins and HUFA. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 149:440–447Google Scholar
- Yarahmadi P, Miandare HK, Fayaz S, Caipang CMA (2016) Increased stocking density causes changes in expression of selected stress-and immune-related genes, humoral innate immune parameters and stress responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & shellfish immunology 48:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yeh S-P, Chang C-A, Chang C-Y, Liu C-H, Cheng W (2008) Dietary sodium alginate administration affects fingerling growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. and iridovirus, and juvenile non-specific immune responses of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Fish & shellfish immunology 25:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar