Vitamin D3 affects innate immune status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)
- 214 Downloads
The effects of vitamin D3 dietary administration on certain innate immune parameters on the expression of immune-related genes in head-kidney (HK) and gut were investigated in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Vitamin D3 (vD3) was orally administered to fish in a commercial pellet food supplemented with 0 (control); 3750; 18,750; or 37,500 U kg−1. Furthermore, gut histology was considered. This study showed a modulation in the activities examined in fish fed with the addition of vD3. After just 2 weeks of administration, diet supplementation with the vitamin resulted in increased phagocytic ability, while serum peroxidase content was increased in fish fed with all experimental diets after 4 weeks, no significant differences were observed in protease, anti-protease, natural haemolytic complement activities and total IgM level. At gene level, fbl and rbl transcripts were up-regulated in HK in fish fed with the highest concentration of vD3-supplemented diets after 4 weeks, while in the gut, an up-regulation of hep gene was observed in fish fed with the different doses of vD3. These results suggest that vD3 may be of great interest for immunostimulatory purposes in fish farms.
KeywordsCholecalciferol (vitamin D3) Innate immunity European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Teleost
This work was supported by grants from MC RITMARE project (CNR and CONISMA). The financial support of the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad under grant no. AGL-2011-30381-C03-01 and of Fundación Séneca de la Región de Murcia (Spain) (grant no. 04538/GERM/06, Grupo de Excelencia de la Región de Murcia) is gratefully acknowledged. F.A. Guardiola benefited from grant by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (SFRH/BPD/104497/2014).
Compliance with ethical standards
The experiments were performed in full compliance with the national rules (D. Lgs 116/92 and subsequent amendments) and the international European Commission Recommendation guidelines for the accommodation and care of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes (2007/526/EC).
- Austin B, Austin DA (2005) Bacterial fish pathogens: diseases of farmed and wild fish, 4th ed. Springer-Praxis 2007, Chichester, UK. Hernandez P. Responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture in: FAO(Ed), FAO Fisheries technical Paper N°469. Rome pp 1–97Google Scholar
- Cerezuela R, Guardiola FA, González P, Meseguer J, Esteban MÁ (2012b) Effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis, Tetraselmis chuii, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, singularly or in combination, on the immune response and disease resistance of sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) Fish Shellfish Immunol 33:242–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cerezuela R, Fumanal M, Tapia-Paniagua ST, Meseguer J, Moriñigo MA, Esteban MÁ (2013) Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34:1063–1070CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cruz-Garcia L, Sánchez-Gurmaches J, Bouraoui L, Saera-Vila A, Pérez-Sánchez J, Gutiérrez J, Navarro I (2011) Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Comp. Biochem Physiol 158:391–399Google Scholar
- Hsieh JC, Pan CY, Chen JY (2010) Tilapia hepcidin (TH) 2-3 as a transgene in transgenic fish enhances resistance to Vibrio vulnificus infection and causes variations in immune-related genes after infection by different bacterial species. Fish Shellfish Immunol 30:1–10Google Scholar
- Keles O, Candan A, Bakırel T, Karatas S (2002) The investigation of the anabolic efficiency and effect on the non-specific immune system of zeranol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Turk J Vet Anim Sci 26:925–931Google Scholar
- Labudzyns’kyĭ DO, Shymans’kyĭ IO, Riasnyĭ VM, Velykyĭ MM (2014) Vitamin D3 availability and functional activity of peripheral blood phagocytes in experimental type 1 diabetes. Ukr Biokhim Zh 86:107–118Google Scholar
- Ortuno J, Esteban MA, Mulero V, Meseguer J (1998) Methods for studying the haemolytic, chemoattractant and opsonic activities of seabream (Sparus aurata L.). In: Barnes AC, Davidson GA, Hiney M, McInthos D (ed) Methodology in fish diseases research Albion Press, pp. 97–100Google Scholar
- Quin C, Zhang Y, Liu W, Xu L, Yang Y, Zhou Z (2014) Effects of chito-oligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, autochthonous gut bacteria and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 40:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rao YV, Chakrabarti R (2004) Enhanced anti-proteases in Labeo rohita fed with diet containing herbal ingredients. Indian J Chem B 19:132–134Google Scholar
- Sahoo PK, Mukherjee SC (2002) Influence of high dietary α-tocopherol intakes on specific immune response, nonspecific resistance factors and disease resistance of healthy and aflatoxin B1-induced immunocompromised Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Aquac Nutr 8:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sakai M, Kamiya H, Ishii S, Atsuta S, Kobayashi M (1992) The immunostimulating effects of chitin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. In: Shariff M, Subasighe RP, Arthur JR (eds) Diseases in Asian aquaculture. Vol. 1. Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, pp 413–417Google Scholar
- Yamamoto N (2004) Vitamin D and the immune system. In: Roitt IM, Delves PJ (eds) Encyclopedia of immunology. Academic Press, London, pp 2494–2499Google Scholar