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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 165–178 | Cite as

Talking to the dead: using Post-mortem data in the assessment of stress in tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) (Péron and Lesueur, 1822)

  • Natascha WosnickEmail author
  • Hugo Bornatowski
  • Carolina Ferraz
  • André Afonso
  • Bianca  Sousa Rangel
  • Fábio Hissa Vieira Hazin
  • Carolina Arruda Freire
Article

Abstract

Sharks are very sensitive to stress and prone to a high mortality rate after capture. Since approximately 50 million of sharks are caught as bycatch every year, and current recommendations to reduce the impact of commercial fishing strongly support immediate release, it is imperative to better understand post-release mortality caused by the stress of capture and handling. Blood samples allow the assessment of stress levels which are valuable tools to reduce mortality in commercial, recreational and scientific fishing, being essential for the improvement in those conservation measures. Biochemical analyses are widely used for sharks as stress indicators, with secondary plasma parameters (lactate, glucose and ions) being the most often employed assays. However, it is virtually impossible to determine baseline plasma parameters in free-ranging sharks, since blood withdrawal involves animal capture and restrain, which are stressful procedures. This study aims at analyzing secondary parameters of five healthy tiger sharks captured with circular hooks and handlines in Fernando de Noronha (Northeastern Brazil) and comparing them with secondary parameters of three dead tiger sharks caught off Recife (also Northeastern Brazil). The results showed that the analysis of some plasma constituents in dead animals may be an efficient tool to assess stress and lethality. However, traditional parameters such as glucose and calcium, need to be used with caution. The results also demonstrated the extreme importance of urea and phosphorus for assessing stress response and mortality in tiger sharks, both parameters frequently neglected and of utmost importance for shark’s homeostasis.

Keywords

Elasmobranch Shark Stress physiology Post-release recovery 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Chris Fisher and OCEARCH crew for sponsorship, access to the vessel, tools, sharks and professional fishing experience, CAPES for the fellowship grant to NW (99999.006477/2015-01) and ASA (BJT-A049/2013), FAPESP for the fellowship grant to HB (2013/25930-0), Fernando Ferradosa for reviewing the English and both anonymous reviewers for their significant and valuable contributions to the final version of this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natascha Wosnick
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hugo Bornatowski
    • 2
  • Carolina Ferraz
    • 3
  • André Afonso
    • 3
  • Bianca  Sousa Rangel
    • 4
  • Fábio Hissa Vieira Hazin
    • 3
  • Carolina Arruda Freire
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) – Centro PolitécnicoCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Centro de Estudos do MarUniversidade Federal do ParanáPontal do ParanáBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Tecnologia Pesqueira, Departamento de Pesca e AquiculturaUniversidade Federal Rural de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratório de Metabolismo e Reprodução de Organismos Aquáticos, Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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