Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 831–844 | Cite as

Mass spectrometry-assisted confirmation of the inability of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 to cleave goldfish peptide YY(1–36) and the lack of anorexigenic effects of peptide YY(3–36) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

  • R. Gonzalez
  • S. Unniappan


Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a serine protease of great interest because it has been shown to modulate the activity of several peptidergic factors including peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1/2. While PYY(1–36) is orexigenic in mammals, PYY(3–36) recently garnered interest as a potent anorexigen. In silico phylogenetic analysis found that the DPP4 cleavage sites are absent in fish PYY sequences. However, no studies were conducted to show that indeed PYY(3–36) is not produced by DPP4 in fish. If DPP4 does not cleave PYY(1–36), is PYY(3–36) an anorexigen in fish? The objectives of this research were to (1) test whether DPP4 cleaves goldfish PYY(1–36) and (2) determine whether PYY(3–36) is an anorexigen in goldfish. First, we identified the highly conserved catalytic region of DPP4 in goldfish. Abundant expression of DPP4 mRNA was found within the gastrointestinal tract. We also report the first MALDI-MS cleavage analysis of DPP4 effects on PYY(1–36) in a non-mammalian vertebrate. Our novel results indicate that DPP4 is unable to cleave goldfish PYY(1–36) to PYY(3–36) in vitro. It also confirms a previously held hypothesis that DPP4 is unable to cleave fish PYY(1–36) that contains N-terminal proline–proline residues. PYY(3–36) had no effects on food intake of goldfish. The appetite inhibitory effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections of 10 ng/g body weight gfPYY(1–36) were abolished by coinjections of BIBP3226, a Y1 receptor antagonist. These results are significant because it shows the lack of generation of endogenous PYY(3–36) and its anorectic effects in goldfish.


Food intake Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 Peptide YY Brain Mass spectrometry Fish 



This work was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada through a Discovery grant, and a Discovery Accelerator Supplement. Infrastructure support for our laboratory is provided by the John R. Evans Leaders Fund from the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and an Establishment grant from the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation to SU. SU is a recipient of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator Salary Award. We thank Naresh Ramesh for assistance with reference list formatting.

Supplementary material

10695_2015_178_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (140 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 140 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Laboratory of Integrative Neuroendocrinology, Department of Veterinary Biomedical SciencesWestern College of Veterinary Medicine, University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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