Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 921–971 | Cite as

Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses

  • Bidhan C. De
  • D. K. Meena
  • B. K. Behera
  • Pronob Das
  • P. K. Das Mohapatra
  • A. P. Sharma
Article

Abstract

Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view.

Keywords

Aquaculture Ecofriendly Immunomodulation Microbiota Probiotics 

Abbreviations

ACP

Alternative complement pathway

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

ASS

Acid sulfate soils

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BFM

Bifidobacteria-fermented milk

BLIS

Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances

CANON

Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite

CER

Conversion efficiency ratio

CF

Condition factor

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DO

Dissolved oxygen

FCR

Feed conversion ratio

FER

Feed efficiency ratio

FISH

Fluorescent in situ hybridization

FOS

Fructo-oligosaccharide

GIT

Gastrointestinal track

HUFA

Highly unsaturated fatty acid

LAB

Lactic acid bacteria

LCA

Life assessment cycle methodology

LDL-C

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MOS

Mannose oligosaccharide

ODC

Ornithine-decarboxylase

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PER

Protein efficiency ratio

PET

Probiotic encapsulation technology

PHB

Poly-hydroxyl butyrate acid

QS

Quorum sensing

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RPS

Relative percent survival

SGR

Specific growth rate

SOD

Sodium oxidase dismutase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TAN

Total ammonia nitrogen

TG

Triglycerides

WGR

Weight gain rate

References

  1. Abdelhamid AM, Mehrim AI, El-Barbary MI, Ibrahim SM, Abd El-Wahab AI (2009) Evaluation of a New Egyptian probiotic by African catfish fingerlings. Environ Sci Technol 2:133–145Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Rhman AM, Khattab YAE, Adel ME, Shalaby AME (2009) Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas species as probiotics for promoting the growth performance and health of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish Shellfish Immunol 27:175–180Google Scholar
  3. Abdullah AM, Hashim R, Aliyu PM (2011) Evaluating the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a biocontrol agent against common pathogenic bacteria and the effects on the haematology parameters and histopathology in African catfish Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Aquac Res 42(2):196–209Google Scholar
  4. Abidi R (2003) Use of probiotics in larval rearing of new candidate species. Aquaculture Asia 8:15–16Google Scholar
  5. Ai Q, Xu H, Mai K, Xu W, Wang J (2011) Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructo-oligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Aquaculture 317:155–161Google Scholar
  6. Akhtar MS, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Alexander C, Gupta SK, Choudhary AK, Jha AK, Rajan MG (2010) Stress mitigating and immuno-modulatory effect of dietary pyridoxine in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. Aquac Res 41:991–1002Google Scholar
  7. Akhtar MS, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Alexander C, Meena DK (2011) Dietary pyridoxine enhances thermal tolerance of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings reared under endosulfan stress. J Therm Biol 36:84–88Google Scholar
  8. Akhtar MS, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Ciji A, Meena DK, Das P (2012a) Physiological responses of dietary tryptophan fed Labeo rohita to temperature and salinity stress. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 97(6):1075–1083. doi:10.1111/jpn12017 Google Scholar
  9. Akhtar MS, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Ciji A, Meena DK (2012b) Effects of dietary pyridoxine on growth and physiological responses of Labeo rohita fingerlings reared at higher water temperature. Israeli J Aquac Bamidgeh 64:1–6Google Scholar
  10. Akinbowale OL, Peng H, Barton MD (2006) Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from aquaculture sources in Australia. J Appl Microbiol 100:1103–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Alak G, Hisar SA (2012) The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal flora. Int J Aquac 2(3):11–14Google Scholar
  12. Alcaide E (2003) Numerical taxonomy of Vibrionaceae isolated from cultured amberjack (Seriola dumerili) and surrounding water. Curr Microbiol 46:184–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Al-Dohail MA, Hashim R, Aliyu-Paiko M (2009) Effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus, on the growth performance, haematology parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerling. Aquac Res 40:1642–1652Google Scholar
  14. Ali F (2006) The use of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 48:149–158Google Scholar
  15. Ali FS, Saad OAO, Hussein SA (2013) Antimicrobial activity of probiotic bacteria. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 5(2):21–34Google Scholar
  16. Amabile-Cuevas CF, Gardenas-Garcia M, Ludga M (1995) Antibiotic resistance. Am Sci 83:320–329Google Scholar
  17. Amado LL, Robaldo RB, Geracitano L, Monserrat JM, Bianchini A (2006) Biomarkers of exposure and effect in the Brazilian flounder (Paralichthys orbignyanus). Mar Pollut Bull 52:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ambas I, Suriawan A, Fotedar R (2013) Immunological responses of customised probiotics-fed marron (Cherax tenuimanus) when challenged with Vibrio mimicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 35(2):262–270. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2013.04.026 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Anik MH, Sudirdjo A, Soemarno M (2011) The effect of consortia bacteria on accumulation rate of organic matter in Tiger shrimp, Penaeus Monodon culture. J Biol Environ Sci 1:592–596Google Scholar
  20. Anukam KC (2007) Probiotic toxicity, any evidence? J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2:590–598Google Scholar
  21. Arıg N, Suzer C, Gokvardar A, Basaran F, Coban D, Yldırım S, Okan Kamac H, Fırat K, Saka S (2013) Effects of probiotic (Bacillus sp.) supplementation during larval development of Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.). Turk J Fish Aquatic Sci 13:407–414Google Scholar
  22. Ashraf A (2000) Probiotics in fish farming evaluation of a candidate bacterial mixture Vattenbruksinstitutionen. Report 19, Umea, Ph Licentiate thesis, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  23. Atira NJ, Aryantha INP, Kadek IDG (2012) The curative action of Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC 226 to Saprolegnia parasitica A3 on catfish (Pangasius hypophthalamus, Sauvage). Int Food Res J 19(4):1723–1727Google Scholar
  24. Aubin J, Gatesoup FJ, Labbé L, Lebrun L (2005) Trial of probiotics to prevent the vertebral column compression syndrome in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquac Res 36:758–767Google Scholar
  25. Austin B (2006) The bacterial micro flora of fish revised. Sci World J 6:931–945Google Scholar
  26. Austin B, Stuckey L, Robertson P, Effendi I, Griffith D (1995) A probiotic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus effective in reducing diseases caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii. J Fish Dis 18:93–96Google Scholar
  27. Avella MA, Place A, Du SJ, Williams E, Silvi S (2012) Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates Zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems. PLoS ONE 7(9):e45572PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Avendano RE, Riquelme CE (1999) Establishment of mixed culture probiotics and micro algae as food for bivalve larvae. Aquac Res 30:893Google Scholar
  29. Ayyaru G, Venkatesan A (2011) Inhibitory activity of probiotic Enterococcus faecium MC13 against Aeromonas hydrophila confers protection against hemorrhagic septicemia in common carp Cyprinus carpio. Aquac Int 19:973–985Google Scholar
  30. Bagheri T, Hedayati SA, Yavari V, Alizade M, Farzanfar A (2008) Growth, survival and gut microbial load of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) fry given diet supplemented with probiotic during the two months of first feeding. Turk J Fish Aquac Sci 8:43–48Google Scholar
  31. Bairagi A, Ghosh K, Sen SK, Ray AK (2002) Enzyme producing bacterial flora isolated from fish digestive tracts. Aquac Int 10:109–121Google Scholar
  32. Balcazar JL, Vendrell D, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Muzquiz JL (2004) Probiotics: a tool for the future of fish and shellfish health management. J Aquac Trop 19:239–242Google Scholar
  33. Balcazar JL, Blas I, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Cunningham D, Vendrell D, Muzquiz JL (2006) The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Vet Microbiol 114:173–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Balcazar JL, Vendrell D, de Blas I, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Gironés O, Múzquiz JL (2007) In vitro competitive adhesion and production of antagonistic compounds by lactic acid bacteria against fish pathogens. Vet Microbiol 122(3–4):373–380Google Scholar
  35. Bansal GR, Singh VP, Sachan N (2011) Effect of probiotic supplementation on the performance of broilers. Asian J Anim Sci 5:277–284Google Scholar
  36. Barth S, Duncker S, Hempe J, Breves G, Baljer G, Bauerfeind R (2009) Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 for probiotic use in piglets: evidence for intestinal colonization. J Appl Microbiol 107:1697–1710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Basu N, Kennedy CJ, Iwama GK (2003) The effects of stress on the association between Hsp70 and the glucocorticoid receptor in rainbow trout. Comp Biochem Physiol 134:655–663Google Scholar
  38. Benetti DD, Orhun MR, Zink I, Cavalin FG, Sardenberg B, Palmer K, Denlinger B, Bacoat D, O’Hanlon B (2007) Aquaculture of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in the Americas and the Caribbean. In: Liao IC, Leano EM (eds) Cobia aquaculture: research, development, and commercial production. Asian Fisheries Society, Quezon City, pp 57–77Google Scholar
  39. Bertotto D, Poltronieri C, Negrato E, Richard J, Pascoli F (2011) Whole body cortisol and expression of HSP70, IGF-I and MSTN in early development of sea bass subjected to heat shock. Gen Comp Endocrinol 174:44–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Biller-Takahashi JD, Takahashi LS, Marzocchi-Machado CM, Zanuzzo FS, Sabioni RE, Urbinati EC (2012) Hemolytic activity of alternative complement pathway as an indicator of innate immunity in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Braz J Anim Husb 41(2):237–241Google Scholar
  41. Biomin (2009) Probiotics in aquaculture operations. Biomin news letter 9(105):1–4Google Scholar
  42. Biswas G, Korenaga H, Nagamine R, Takayama H, Kawahara S, Takeda S, Kikuchi Y, Dashnyam B, Kono T, Sakai M (2013) Cytokine responses in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) head kidney cells induced with heat-killed probiotics isolated from the Mongolian dairy products. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34(5):1170–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Bjornsdottir R, Karadottir EG, Johannsdottir J, Thorarinsdottir EE, Smaradottir H, Sigurgisladottir S, Gudmundsdottir BK (2010) Selection of bacteria and the effects of bacterial treatment of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) eggs and larvae. Aquaculture 302:219–227Google Scholar
  44. Bogut I, Milakovic Z, Brkic S, Novoselic D, Bukvic Z (2000) Effects of Enterococcus faecium on the growth rate and content of intestinal microflora in Sheat fish (Silurtes glanis). J Vet Med 45:107–109Google Scholar
  45. Bolasina S, Perez A, Yamashita Y (2006) Digestive enzymes activity during ontogenetic development and effect of starvation in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture 252:503–515Google Scholar
  46. Bondarenko O, Rolova T, Kahru A, Ivask A (2008) Bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Hg in soil to nine recombinant luminescent metal sensor bacteria. Sensors 8:6899–6923PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Bonnet S, Webb EA, Panzeca C, Karl DM, Capone DG, Sanudo-Wilhelmy SA (2010) Vitamin B12 excretion by cultures of the marine cyanobacteria Crocosphaera and Synechococcus. Limnol Oceanogr 55(5):1959–1964Google Scholar
  48. Boyd CE (1979) Water quality in warm water fish ponds agriculture experiment station. Auburn, Alabama, p 359Google Scholar
  49. Boyd CE, Gross A (1998) Use of probiotics for improving soil and water quality in aquaculture ponds. In: Flegel TW (ed) Advances in shrimp biotechnology. National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  50. Brandt KK, Holm PE, Nybroe O (2006) Bioavailability and toxicity of soil particle-associated copper as determined by two bioluminescent Pseudomonas fluorescens biosensor strains. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:1738–1741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Brauner CJ (2008) Acid-base balance. In: Finn RN, Kapoor BG (eds) Fish larval physiology. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 185–198Google Scholar
  52. Brownell CL (1980) Water quality requirements for first-feeding marine fish larvae II: pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 44:285–298Google Scholar
  53. Burr G, Gatlin D, Ricke S (2007) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in fin fish aquaculture. J World Aquac Soc 36:425–436Google Scholar
  54. Busch KET, Peruzzi S, Tonning F, Falk-Petersen IB (2011) Effect of prey type and size on the growth, survival and pigmentation of cod (Gadus morhua, L.) larvae. Aquac Nutr 17:595–603Google Scholar
  55. Cadenas E (1989) Biochemistry of oxygen toxicity. Annu Rev Biochem 58:79–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cahill MM (1990) Bacterial flora of fishes: a review. J Microbial Ecol 19:21–41Google Scholar
  57. Capcarova M, Kolesarova A, Massanyi P, Kovacik J (2008) Selected blood biochemical and haematological parameters in turkeys after an experimental probiotic Enterococcus faecium M-74 strain administration. Int J Poultry Sci 7:1194–1199Google Scholar
  58. Carnevali O, de Vivo L, Sulpizio R (2006) Growth improvement by probiotic in European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax, L), with particular attention to IGF-1, myostatin and cortisol gene expression. Aquaculture 258:430–438Google Scholar
  59. Carraturo A, Raieta K, Ottaviani D, Russo GL (2006) Inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) produced by Vibrio mediterranei. J Appl Microbiol 101:234–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Caruso G, Denaro MG, Genovese L (2008) Temporal hanges in digestive enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (Linneo 1758) following feeding. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol l41:215–228Google Scholar
  61. Castex M, Lemaire P, Wabete N, Chim L (2009) Effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress status of shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris. Aquaculture 294:306–313Google Scholar
  62. Catarina V, Diana M, Luís N, Henrique NC, Mário D (2012) Effect of temperature on oxidative stress in fish: lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in the muscle of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Ecol Ind 23:274–279Google Scholar
  63. Cerezuela R, Meseguer J, Esteban MA (2011) Current knowledge in synbiotic use for fish aquaculture (a review). J Aquac Res Dev. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9546.S1-008
  64. Cerezuela R, Fumanal M, Tapia-Paniagua ST, Meseguer J, Moriñigo MÁ, Esteban MÁ (2013) Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish Shellfish Immunol 34(5):1063–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cerrato RM (2000) What fish biologists should know about bivalve growth? Fish Res 46:39–49Google Scholar
  66. Chabrillon M, Rico RM, Balebona MC, Morinigo M (2005) Adhesion to sole Soleasenegalensis Kaup, mucus of microorganisms isolated from farmed fish, and their interaction with Photobacterium damselae subsp Piscicida. J Fish Dis 28:229–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Chae-Woo M, Cho Y-S, Oh K-H (2009) Removal of pathogenic bacteria and nitrogens by Lactobacillus sp. JK-8 and JK-11. Aquaculture 287:266–270Google Scholar
  68. Champagne CP, Lacroix C, Sodini-Gallot I (1994) Immobilized cell technologies for the dairy industry. Crit Rev Biochem 14:109–134Google Scholar
  69. Chang CI, Liu WY (2002) An evaluation of two probiotic bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium SF68 and Bacillus toyoi, for reducing edwardsiellosis in cultured European eel, (Anguilla anguilla). J Fish Dis 25:311–315Google Scholar
  70. Chaucheyras-Durand F, Durand H (2010) Probiotics in animal nutrition and health. Beneficial Microbes 1(1):3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Chiu CH, Guu YK, Liu CH, Pan TM, Cheng W (2007) Immune responses and gene expression in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), induced by Lactobacillus plantarum. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:364–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Chu BC, Garcia-Herrero A, Johanson TH, Krewulak KD, Lau CK, Peacock RS, Slavinskaya Z, Vogel HJ (2010) Siderophore uptake in bacteria and the battle for iron with the host; a bird’s eye view. Biometals 23(4):601–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Chu W, Lu F, Zhu W, Kang C (2011) Isolation and characterization of new potential probiotic bacteria based on quorum-sensing system. J Appl Microbiol 110:202–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Close DM, Ripp S, Sayler GS (2009) Reporter proteins in whole-cell optical bioreporter detection systems, biosensor integrations, and biosensing applications. Sensors 9:9147–9174PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Close DM, Patterson SS, Ripp S, Baek SJ, Sanseverino J, Sayler GS (2010) Autonomous bioluminescent expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) in a mammalian cell line. PLoS ONE 5:e12441PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Colburn HR, Walker AB, Berlinsky DL, Nardi GC (2008) Factors affecting survival of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, during simulated transport. J World Aquac Soc 39:678–683Google Scholar
  77. Collado MC, Grzeskowiak L, Salminen S (2007) Probiotic strains and their combination inhibit in vitro adhesion of pathogens to pig intestinal mucosa. Curr Microbiol 55:260–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Cristea V, Ceapa C, Grecu I (2002) Re-circulating aquaculture systems engineering. Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House, Bucharest, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  79. Cruz PM, Ana LI, Oscar AM, Hugo CR (2012) Use of probiotics in aquaculture. International Scholarly Research Network, ISRN Microbiology 916845, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  80. D’Angio C, Beal C, Boquien CY, Corrieu G (1994) Influence of dilution rate and cell immobilization on plasmid stability during continuous cultures of recombinant strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. J Biotechnol 34:87–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Dahiya TP, Sihag RC (2009) Incidence of vibriosis in the Indian magur (Clarias batrachus L.) in saline water ponds of Haryana: a new report from India. Ecotech 1:116–121Google Scholar
  82. Dahiya TP, Kant R, Sihag RC (2009) Pathogenicity of bacterial isolates from catfish (Clarias batrachus), the Indian magur. J Biosphere 1:42–46Google Scholar
  83. Dahiya T, Gahlawat SK, Sihag RC (2012a) Elimination of pathogenic bacterium (Micrococcus sp.) by the use of probiotics. Turk J Fish Aquatic Sci 12:185–187Google Scholar
  84. Dahiya T, Sihag RC, Gahlawat SK (2012b) Effect of probiotics on the haematological parameters of Indian magur (Clarius batrachus L). J Fish Aquatic Sci 7:279–290Google Scholar
  85. Dalmin G, Kathiresan K, Purushothaman A (2001) Effect of probiotics on bacterial population and health status of shrimp in culture pond ecosystem. Indian J Exp Biol 39:939–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Daniels CL, Merrifield DL, Boothroyd DP, Davies SJ, Factor JR, Arnold KE (2010) Effect of dietary Bacillus sp. and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut microbiota. Aquaculture 304:49–57Google Scholar
  87. Das KM, Tripathi SD (1991) Studies on the digestive enzymes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture 92:21–32Google Scholar
  88. Das T, Pal AK, Chakraborty SK, Manush SM, Sahu NP, Mukherjee SC (2005) Thermal tolerance, growth and oxygen consumption of Labeo rohita fry (Hamilton, 1822) acclimated to four temperatures. J Therm Biol 30:378–383Google Scholar
  89. Das S, Lyla PS, Khan SA (2006) Application of streptomyces as a probiotic in the laboratory culture of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). Israeli J Aquac 58:198–204Google Scholar
  90. Daw T, Adger WN, Brown K, Badjeck MC (2009) Climate change and capture fisheries: potential impacts, adaptation and mitigation. In: Cochrane K, De Young C, Soto D, Bahri T (eds) Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture overview of current scientific knowledge. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical paper: No 530, FAO, Rome, pp 107–150Google Scholar
  91. Defoirdt T, Boon N, Bossier P, Verstraete W (2004) Disruption of bacterial quorum sensing: an unexplored strategy to fight infections in aquaculture. Aquaculture 240:69–88Google Scholar
  92. Defoirdt T, Bossier P, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W (2005) The impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi on their virulence towards gnotobiotically cultured Artemia franciscana. Environ Microbiol 7:1239–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Defoirdt T, Crab R, Wood TK, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W, Bossier P (2006) Quorum sensing, disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(9):6419–6423PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. DeMicco A, Cooper KR, Richardson JR, White LA (2010) Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides in Zebra fish embryos. Toxicol Sci 113:177–186PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Denev S, Staykov Y, Moutafchieva R, Beev G (2009) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of probiotics and prebiotics in finfish aquaculture. Int Aquac Res 1:1–29Google Scholar
  96. Denkova Z, Krastanov A, Murgov I (2004) Immobilized lactic acid bacteria for application as dairy starters and probiotic preparations. J General Appl Microbiol 50(2):107–114Google Scholar
  97. Desriac F, Defer D, Bourgougnon N, Brillet B, Le Chevalier P, Fleury Y (2010) Bacteriocin as weapons in the marine animal-associated bacteria warfare: inventory and potential applications as an aquaculture probiotic. Mar Drugs 8:1153–1177Google Scholar
  98. Devaraja T, Banerjee S, Sariff YM, Khatoon H (2013) A holistic approach for selection of Bacillus sp. as a bioremediator for shrimp post larvae culture. Turk J Biol 37:92–100Google Scholar
  99. Dharmaraj S, Dhevendaran K (2010) Evaluation of Streptomyces as a probiotic feed for the growth of ornamental fish, Xiphophorus helleri. Food Technol Biotechnol 48(4):497–504Google Scholar
  100. Diaz-Rosales P, Arijo S, Chabrillon M, Alarcón FJ, Tapia-Paniagua ST, Martínez-Manzanares E, Balebona MC, Morinigo MA (2009) Effects of two closely related probiotics on respiratory burst activity of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) phagocytes, and protection against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Aquaculture 293:16–21Google Scholar
  101. Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Carnevali O, Picchietti S, Avella M, Daniels C, Güroy D, Davies SJ (2011) Microbial manipulations to improve fish health and production, a Mediterranean perspective. Fish Shellfish Immunol 30:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Diplock EE, Alhadrami HA, Paton GI (2010) Application of microbial bioreporters in environmental microbiology and bioremediation. In: Belkin S, Gu MB (eds) Whole cell sensing systems II. Springer, Berlin, pp 189–209Google Scholar
  103. Doleyres Y, Lacroix C (2004) Technologies with free and immobilized cells from probiotic Bifidobacteria production and protection. Appl Biotechnol Food Sci Policy 15:973–988Google Scholar
  104. Doleyres Y, Fliss I, Lacroix C (2004a) Continuous production of lactic starters containing probiotics using immobilized cell technology. Biotechnol Progress 20:145–150Google Scholar
  105. Doleyres Y, Fliss I, Lacroix C (2004b) Increased stress tolerance of Bifidobacterium longum and Lactococcus lactis produced during continuous mixed strain immobilized cell termination. J Appl Microbiol 97:39–57Google Scholar
  106. Dong Y, Taylor HE, Dimopoulos G (2006) AgDscam, a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the Anopheles gambiae innate immune system. PLoS Biol 4:1137–1146Google Scholar
  107. Dong XY, Qin JG, Zhang XM (2011) Fish adaptation to oxygen variations in aquaculture from hypoxia to hyperoxia. J Fish Aquac 2:23–28Google Scholar
  108. Donohue TJ, Bernlohr RW (1981) Properties of the Bacillus licheniformis A5 glutamine synthetase purified from cells grown in the presence of ammonia or nitrate. J Bacteriol 147:589–601PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. dos Anjos NA, Schulze T, Brack W, Val AL, Schirmer K, Scholz S (2011) Identification and evaluation of cyp1a transcript expression in fish as molecular biomarker for petroleum contamination in tropical freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic Toxicol 103:46–52Google Scholar
  110. Drillet G, Rabarimanantsoa T, Frouel S, Lamson JS, Christensen AM, Kim-Tiam S, Hansen BW (2011) Do inactivated microbial preparations improve life history traits of the copepod Acartia tonsa? Mar Biotechnol (New York, NY) 13:831–836Google Scholar
  111. Eddy SD, Jones SH (2002) Microbiology of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) fingerling production at a marine fish hatchery. Aquaculture 211:9–28Google Scholar
  112. Eid A, Mohamed KA (2008) Effect of using probiotic as growth promoter in commercial diets for monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in aquaculture, Cairo, Egypt, 12–14 Oct, pp 241–253Google Scholar
  113. El-Dakar AY, Shalaby SM, Saoud IP (2007) Assessing the use of dietary probiotic/prebiotic as an enhancer of spine foot rabbit fish (Singanus rivulatus), survival and growth. Aquac Nutr 13:407–412Google Scholar
  114. Eldar A, Ghittino C, Asanta L, Bozzetta E, Goria M, Prearo M, Bercovier H (1996) Enterococcus seriolicida Is a junior synonym of Lactococcus garvieae, a causative agent of septicemia and meningoencephalitis in fish. Curr Microbiol 32:85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Elena B, Cristea V, Patriche N, Grecu I, săndiţa I, Coadă MT, Ionescu TI (2011) Water quality monitoring into a recirculating aquaculture system for intensive rearing of carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles fed with probiotics supplement Lucrari stiintifice. Seria Zootehnie 55:289–294Google Scholar
  116. El-Haroun ER, AS-Goda AM, Kabir CMA (2006) Effect of dietary probiotic Biogen supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquac Res 37:1473–1480Google Scholar
  117. Eltzov E, Marks RS (2011) Whole-cell aquatic biosensors. Anal Bioanal Chem 400:895–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Esteban MA (2012) An overview of the immunological defenses in fish skin. ISRN Immunol 2012:29. doi:10.5402/2012/853470
  119. Estudillo CB, Duray MN (2003) Transport of hatchery-reared and wild grouper larvae Epinephelus sp. Aquaculture 219:279–290Google Scholar
  120. Fabbri E, Capuzzo A, Moon TW (1998) The role of circulating catecholamines in the regulation of fish metabolism: an overview. Comp Biochem Physiol A: Mol Integr Physiol 120:177–192Google Scholar
  121. Faramarzi M, Jafaryan H, Patimar R, Iranshahi F, Boloki ML, Farahi A, Kiaalvandi S, Ghamsary M, Makhtoumi NM, Iranshahi F (2011) The effects of different concentrations of probiotic Bacillus sp. and different bioencapsulation times on growth performance and survival rate of Persian sturgeon (Acipencer persicus) larvae. World J Fish Mar Sci 3(2):145–150Google Scholar
  122. Farombi EO, Adelowo OA, Ajimoko YR (2007) Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicators of environmental pollution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4:158–165PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Fasoli S, Marzotto M, Rizzotti L, Rossi F, Dellaglio F, Torriani S (2003) Bacterial composition of commercial probiotic products as evaluated by PCR-DGGE analysis. Int J Food Microbiol 82:59–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ferreira M, Moradas-Ferreira P, Reis-Henriques MA (2005) Oxidative stress biomarkers in two resident species, mullet (Mugil cephalus) and flounder (Platichthys flesus), from a polluted site in River Douro Estuary, Portugal. Aquat Toxicol 71:39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ficke AD, Myrick CA, Hansen LJ (2007) Potential impacts of global climate change on fresh water fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fish 17:581–613Google Scholar
  126. Firouzbakhsh F, Noori F, Khalesi MK, Jani-Khalili K (2011) Effects of a probiotic, protexin, on the growth performance and hematological parameters in the Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) fingerlings. Fish Physiol Biochem 37:833–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Flajnik MF, Du Pasquier L (2008) Evolution of the immune system. In: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Wang A, Zheng G, Liao S, Huang H, Sun R (2007a). Diversity analysis of bacteria capable of removing nitrate/nitrite in a shrimp pond (6th ed). Ecological Society of China, vol 27, no 5, pp 1937–1943Google Scholar
  128. Forsius M, Vuorenmaa J, Bergström RK, Nikinmaa E, Arvola L (2012) Impacts and adaptation options of climate change on ecosystem services in Finland: a model based study. The 7th international symposium on ecosystem behavior Northport, Maine, USA July 15–20Google Scholar
  129. Foss A, Vollen T, Øiestad V (2003) Growth and oxygen consumption in normal and O2supersaturated water, and interactive effects of O2 saturation and ammonia on growth in spotted wolf fish (Anarhichas minor Olafsen). Aquaculture 224:105–116Google Scholar
  130. Fuller R (1989) Probiotics in man and animals: a review. J Appl Bacteriol 68:365–378Google Scholar
  131. Galindo AB (2003) Lactobacillus plantarum 44A as a live feed supplement for fresh water fish PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  132. Garcia T, Otto K, Kjelleberg S, Nelson DR (1997) Growth of Vibrio anguillarum in salmon intestinal mucus. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1034–1039PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Gatesoupe FJ (1994) Lactic acid bacteria increase the resistance of turbot larvae, Scophthalmus maximus, against pathogenic Vibrio. Aquatic Living Resour 7:277–282Google Scholar
  134. Gatesoupe FJ (1997) Siderophore production and probiotic effect of Vibrio sp. associated with turbot larvae, Scophthalmus maximus. Aquatic Living Resour 10:239–246Google Scholar
  135. Gatesoupe FJ (1999) The use of probiotic in aquaculture. Aquaculture 180:147–165Google Scholar
  136. Gatesoupe FJ (2008) Updating the importance of lactic acid bacteria in fish farming: natural occurrence and probiotic treatments. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 14:107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Gbassi GK, Vandamme T (2012) Probiotic encapsulation technology: from microencapsulation to release into the gut. Pharmaceutics 4:149–163PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Geng X, Dong XH, Tan BP, Yang QH, Chi SY (2011) Effects of dietary chitosan and Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, (Rachycentron canadum). Fish Shellfish Immunol 31:400–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Gerbaldo GA, Barberis C, Pascual L, Dalcero A, Barberis L (2012) Antifungal activity of two Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic properties. FEMS Microbiol Lett 332(1):27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Gerschman RDL, Gilbert SW, Nye P, Dwyer WO (1954) Fenn oxygen poisoning and X-irradiation: a mechanism in common. Science 119:4562–4570Google Scholar
  141. Ghosh K, Sen SK, Ray AK (2004) Growth and survival of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) spawn fed diets fermented with intestinal bacterium, Bacillus circulans. Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 34:155–165Google Scholar
  142. Ghosh S, Sinha A, Sahu C (2008) Dietary probiotic supplementation on growth and health of live-bearing ornamental fishes. Aquac Nutr 14(4):289–299Google Scholar
  143. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr Biochem 125:1401–1412Google Scholar
  144. Gibson LF, Woodworth J, George AM (1998) Probiotic activity of Aeromonas media on the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) when challenged with Vibrio tubiashii. Aquaculture 169:111–120Google Scholar
  145. Gildberg A, Mikkelsen H (1998) Effect of supplementing the feed of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fry with lactic acid bacteria and immune stimulating peptides during a challenge trial with Vibrio anguillarum. Aquaculture 167:103–113Google Scholar
  146. Gildberg A, Johansen A, Boegwald J (1995) Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry given diets supplemented with fish protein hydrolysate and lactic acid bacteria during a challenge trial with Aeromonas salmonicida. Aquaculture 138:23–34Google Scholar
  147. Gildberg A, Mikkelsen H, Sandaker H, Ringo E (1997) Probiotic effect of lactic acid bacteria in the feed on growth and survival of fry of Atlantic cod (Gadus Morhua). Hydrobiologia 352:279–285Google Scholar
  148. Gioacchini G, Giorgini E, Merrifield DL, Hardiman G, Borini A (2012) Probiotics can induce follicle maturational competence: the Danio rerio case. Biol Reprod 86:65PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Giorgio G, Nina C, Yantyati W (2010) Importance of Lactobacilli in food and feed biotechnology. Res Microbiol 161:480–487Google Scholar
  150. Giri SS, Sukumaran V, Oviya M (2013) Potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 improves the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34(2): Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria 660–666Google Scholar
  151. Goligorsky MS (2001) The concept of cellular ‘fight-or-flight’ reaction to stress. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 280:551–561Google Scholar
  152. Gomes LC, Brinn RP, Marcon JL, Dantas LA, Brandao FR, Sampaio de Abreu J, McComb DM, Baldisserotto B (2008) Using Effinol L during transportation of marbled hatchetfish, (Carnegiella strigata). Aquac Res 39:1292–1298Google Scholar
  153. Gomes LC, Brinn RP, Marcon JL, Dantas LA, Brandao FR, Sampaio de Abreu J, Lemos PEM, McComb DM, Baldisserotto B (2009) Benefits of using the probiotic Efinol L during transportation of cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) in the Amazon. Aquac Res 40:157–165Google Scholar
  154. Gomez-Gil B, Roque A, Turnbull JF (2000) The use and selection of probiotic bacteria for use in the culture of larval aquatic organisms. Aquaculture 191:259–270Google Scholar
  155. Gomez-Gil B, Rogue A, Velasco-Blanco G (2002) Culture of Vibrio alginolyticus C7b, a potential probiotic bacterium, with the microalga Chaetoceros muelleri. Aquaculture 211:43–48Google Scholar
  156. Goncalves AT, Maita M, Futami K, Endo M, Katagiri T (2011) Effects of a probiotic bacterial Lactobacillus rhamnosus dietary supplement on the crowding stress response of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish Sci 77:633–642Google Scholar
  157. Gonzalez-Santoyo I, Córdoba-Aguilar A (2012) Phenoloxidase: a key component of the insect immune system (mini review). Entomol Exp Appl 142:1–16Google Scholar
  158. Gosavi K, Sammut J, Gifford S, Jankowski J (2004) Macroalgal biomonitors of trace metal contamination in acid sulfate soil aquaculture ponds. Sci Total Environ 25:25–39Google Scholar
  159. Goulden EF, Hall MR, Pereg LL, Høj L (2012) Identification of an antagonistic probiotic combination protecting ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) larvae against Vibrio owensii infection. PLoS ONE 7(7):e39667PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Gram L, Melchiorsen J, Spanggaard B, Huber I, Nielsen T (1999) Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 a possible probiotic treatment of fish. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:969–973PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Gram L, Loevold T, Nielsen J, Melchiorsen J, Spanggaard B (2001) In vitro antagonism of the probiont Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against Aeromonas salmonicida does not confer protection of salmon against furunculosis. Aquaculture 199:1–11Google Scholar
  162. Gullian M, Thompson F, Rodriguez J (2004) Selection of probiotic bacteria and study of their immunostimulatory effect in Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 233:1–14Google Scholar
  163. Guo JJ, Liu KF, Cheng SH, Chang C, Lay JJ, Hsu YO, Yang JY, Chen TI (2009) Selection of probiotic bacteria for use in shrimp larvicultura. Aquac Res 40:609–618Google Scholar
  164. Guzman-Villanueva L, Tovar-Ramírez D, Civera-Cerecedo R (2007) Effect of wild and ornithine decarboxylase deficient Debaryomyces hansenii, on Paralabrax maculatofasciatus larvae development, Caribbean and Latin American Aquaculture 2007, San Juan Puerto Rico, 6–9 NovemberGoogle Scholar
  165. Hagi T, Hoshino T (2009) Screening and characterization of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from cultured common carp intestine. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:1479–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Hallare AV, Kohler HR, Triebskorn R (2004) Developmental toxicity and stress protein responses in zebrafish embryos after exposure to diclofenac and its solvent, DMSO. Chemosphere 56:659–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Harikrishnan R, Kim MC, Kim JS, Balasundaramb C, Heo MS (2011a) Protective effect of herbal and probiotics enriched diet on haematological and immunity status Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) against Edwardsiella tarda. Fish Shellfish Immunol 30:886–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Harikrishnan R, Kim MC, Kim JS, Balasundaramb C, Heo MS (2011b) Immunomodulatory effect of probiotics enriched diets on Uronema marinum infected olive flounder. Fish Shellfish Immunol 30:964–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Harms H, Wells MC, van der Meer JR (2006) Whole-cell living biosensors are they ready for environmental application? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 70:273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Havenaar R, Hiusin’t Veid JHJ (1992) Probiotics: a general view. In: Wood BJB (ed) The lactic acid bacteria, vol I. Elsevier, London, pp 151–169Google Scholar
  171. He S, Zhou Z, Liu Y, Shi P, Yao B, Ringo E, Yoon I (2009) Effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (DVAQUA®) on growth performance, intestinal autochthonous bacterial community and non-specific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀× O. aureus ♂) cultured in cages. Aquaculture 294:99–107Google Scholar
  172. He S, Liu W, Zhou Z, Mao W, Ren P (2011) Evaluation of probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis C-3102 as a feed supplement for koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Aquac Res Dev 3(S):S1–S005Google Scholar
  173. Heikkinen et al (2013) submitted manuscript entitled “Novel applications of Pseudomonas sp. bacterial strains in Rainbow trout aquaculture” Google Scholar
  174. Heizhao Z, Zhixun G, Yingying Y, Wenhui Z, Zhuojia J (2004) Effect of dietary probiotics on apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Boone. Aquac Res 35(15):1441–1447Google Scholar
  175. Hena AMK, Sharifuzzaman SM, Hishamuddin O, Misri K, Abdullah F (2008) Pond health management of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) using bacterial products. In Bondad-Reantaso MG, Mohan CV, Crumlish M, Subasinghe RP (eds) Diseases in Asian aquaculture VI. Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, pp 505Google Scholar
  176. Hever N, Belkin S (2006) A dual-color bacterial reporter strain for the detection of toxic and genotoxic effects. Eng Life Sci 6:319–323Google Scholar
  177. Hidalgo MC, Skalli A, Abellán E, Arizcun M, Cardenete G (2006) Dietary intake of probiotics and maslinic acid in juvenile dentex (Dentex dentex L.): effects on growth performance, survival and liver proteolytic activities. Aquac Nutr 12:256–266Google Scholar
  178. Hjelm M, Bergh Ø, Riaza A, Nielsen J, Melchiorsen J, Jensen S, Duncan H, Ahrens P, Birkbeck H, Gram L (2004) Selection and identification of autochthonous potential probiotic bacteria from turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus) rearing units. Syst Appl Microbiol 27:360–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Hood M, Meyers S, Colmer A (1971) Bacteria of the digestive tract of the white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus). Bacteriol Protocole 71:48–53Google Scholar
  180. Hosseini SV, Arlindo S, Bohme K, Fernandez-No C, Calo-Mata PJ, Barros-Vela Z (2009) Molecular and probiotic characterization of bacteriocin producing Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from non-fermented animal foods. J Appl Microbiol 107:1392–1403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Hovda MB, Lunestad BT, Fontanillas DR, Rosnes JT (2007) Molecular characterization of the intestinal microbiota of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Aquaculture 272:581–588Google Scholar
  182. Hsieh TJ, Wang JC, Hu CY, Li CT, Kuo CM, Hsieh SL (2008) Effects of rutin from Toona sinensis on the immune and physiological responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol 25:581–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Huang J, Lacroix C, Daba H, Simard RE (1996) Pediocin 5 production and plasmid stability during continuous free and immobilized cell cultures of Pediococcus acidilactice. J Appl Bacteriol 5:635–644Google Scholar
  184. Hung ATY, Su TM, Liao CW, Lu JJ (2008) Effect of probiotic combination fermented soybean meal on growth performance, lipid metabolism and immunological response of growing-finishing pigs. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 3:431–436Google Scholar
  185. Hussein SA, Kebary KMK (1999) Improving viability of bifidobacteria by microentrapment and their effect on some pathogenic bacteria in stirred yogurt. Food Record 28:113–131Google Scholar
  186. Huys G, Vancanneyt M, D’Haene K, Vankerckhoven V, Goossens H, Swings J (2006) Accuracy of species identity of commercial bacterial cultures intended for probiotics or nutritional use. Res Microbiol 157:803–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Hynninen A, Virta M (2010) Whole-cell bioreporters for the detection of bioavailable metals. In: Belkin S, Gu MB (eds) Whole cell sensing systems II: applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 31–63Google Scholar
  188. Hynninen A, Tönismann K, Virta M (2010) Improving the sensitivity of bacterial bio reporters for heavy metals. Bioeng Bugs 1(2):132–138PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Ige BA (2013) Probiotics use in intensive fish farming. Afr J Microbiol Res 7(22):2701–2711Google Scholar
  190. Iman MKA, Wafaa TA, Elham SA, Mohammad MNA, El-Shafei K, Osama MS, Gamal AI, Zeinab IS, El-Sayed HS (2013) Evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum as a probiotic in aquaculture: emphasis on growth performance and innate immunity. J Appl Sci Res 9(1):572–582Google Scholar
  191. Imelda J (2003) Bioencapsulation of live feeds. In: Winter school on recent advances in mariculture. Genetics and Biotechnology, CochinGoogle Scholar
  192. Ines G, Dela B, Lobo C, Mariana C, Leon-Rubio JM, Salvador A, GemaPazos LML, Morinigo MA (2012) Influence of dietary administration of a probiotic strain Shewanella putrefaciens on Senegalese sole (Soleasenegalensis, Kaup 1858) growth, body composition and resistance to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Aquac Res 43:662–669Google Scholar
  193. Irianto A, Austin B (2002a) a) Probiotic in aquaculture. J Fish Dis 25:633–642Google Scholar
  194. Irianto A, Austin B (2002b) Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis 25:333–342Google Scholar
  195. Irianto A, Austin B (2003) Use of dead probiotic cells to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis 26(1):59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Irianto A, Robertson PAW, Austin B (2003) Oral administration of formalin-inactivated cells of Aeromonas hydrophila A3-51 controls infection by a typical A. salmonicida in goldfish, (Carassius auratus). J Fish Dis 26:117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Iribarren D, Daga P, Moreira MT, Feijoog G (2012) Potential environmental effects of probiotics used in aquaculture. Aquac Int 20:779–789Google Scholar
  198. Ishibashi N, Yamazaki S (2001) Probiotics and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 73:465S–470SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Ismat N, Ashraf M, Rehman MNMH (2013) Effect of different feed ingredients on growth and level of intestinal enzyme secretions in Juvenile Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix. Int J Aquac 3:16Google Scholar
  200. Itoi S, Abe T, Washio S, Ikuno E, Kanomata Y, Sugita H (2008) Isolation of halo tolerant Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis from intestinal tract of coastal fish. Int J Food Microbiol 121:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Ivask A, Dubourguier HC, Pollumaa L, Kahru A (2011) Bioavailability of Cd in 110 polluted topsoils to recombinant bioluminescent sensor bacteria: effect of soil particulate matter. J Soils Sediments 11:231–237Google Scholar
  202. Iwama GK, Afonso LOB, Todgham A, Ackerman P, Nakano K (2004) Are Hsp suitable for indicating stressed states in fish? J Exp Biol 207:15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Jayalakhmi S (2006) Synergistic effect of cowdung and probiotic bacteria on food utilization of Labio rohita MPhil dissertation, Govt Arts College, KumbakonamGoogle Scholar
  204. Jia X, Zhang H, Liu X (2011) Low levels of cadmium exposure induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in the liver of Oujiang colored common carp (Cyprinus carpio var color). Fish Physiol Biochem 37:97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Jiang HF, Liu XL, Chang YQ, Liu MT, Wang GX (2013) Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone (Haliotis discus). Fish Shellfish Immunol 35(1):86–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Jiqiu L, Beiping T, Kangsen M (2006) Comparative study between probiotic bacterium Arthrobacter XE-7 and chloramphenicol on protection of Penaeus chinensis post-larvae from pathogenic Vibrios. Aquaculture 253:140–147Google Scholar
  207. Joborn A, Olsson JC, Westerdahl A, Conway PL, Kjelleberg S (1997) Colonization in the fish intestinal tract and production of inhibitory substances in intestinal mucus and faecal extracts by Carnobacterium sp. strain Kl. J Fish Dis 20:383–392Google Scholar
  208. Jones AB, Dennison WC, Preston NP (2001) Integrated treatment of shrimp effluent by sedimentation, oyster filtration and macroalgal absorption: a laboratory scale study. Aquaculture 193:155–178Google Scholar
  209. Jurkevitch E (2007) Predatory behaviors in bacteria diversity and transitions. Microbe Am Soc Microbiol 2:67–73Google Scholar
  210. Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB, Hosain MZ, Akand MSI, Das SK (2005) Viability of probiotics in balancing intestinal flora and effecting histological changes of crop and caecal tissues of broilers. Biotechnology 4:325–330Google Scholar
  211. Kamei Y, Yoshimizu M, Ezura Y, Kimura T (1988) Screening of bacteria with antiviral activity from fresh water salmonid hatcheries. Microbiol Immunol 32:67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Kamei H, Ding Y, Kajimura S, Wells M, Chiang P (2011) Role of IGF signaling in catch-up growth and accelerated temporal development in zebrafish embryos in response to oxygen availability. Development 138:777–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Kapareiko D, Hyun JL, Eric JS, Ammar H, Gary HW (2011) Isolation and evaluation of new probiotic bacteria for use in shellfish hatcheries: II. Effects of a Vibrio sp. probiotic candidate upon survival of oyster larvae (Crassostrea Virginica) in pilot-scale trials. J Shellfish Res 30(3):617–625Google Scholar
  214. Kar N, Ghosh K (2008) Enzyme producing bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and channa punctatus (Bloch). Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 8:115–120Google Scholar
  215. Karim M, Zhao W, Rowley D, Nelson D, Gomez-Chiarri M (2013) Probiotic strains for shellfish aquaculture: protection of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae and juveniles against bacterial challenge. J Shellfish Res 32(2):401–408Google Scholar
  216. Kassahn KS, Crozier RH, Portner HO, Caley MJ (2009) Animal performance and stress: responses and tolerance limits at different levels of biological organization. Biol Rev 84:277–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Kawai T, Akira S (2006) Innate immune recognition of viral infection. Nature Immunol 7:131–137Google Scholar
  218. Keller JM, Escara-Wilke F, Keller ET (2008) Heat stress-induced heat shock protein 70 expression is dependent on ERK activation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 150:307–314Google Scholar
  219. Kesarcodi-Watson A, Kaspar H, Lategan MJ, Gibson L (2008) Probiotics in aquaculture: the need, principles and mechanisms of action and screening processes. Aquaculture 274:1–14Google Scholar
  220. Kets EPW, Teunissen PJM, de Bont JAM (1996) Effect of compatible solutes on survival of lactic acid bacteria subjected to drying. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:259–261PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Khattab YE, Shalaby AE, Sharaf SM, El-Marakby H, Rizl Alla EH (2004) The physiological changes and growth performance of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after feeding with Biogen as growth promoter. Egypt J Aquatic Biol Fish 8:145–158Google Scholar
  222. Kim DH, Austin B (2006) Innate immune responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) induced by probiotics. Fish Shellfish Immunol 21(5):513–524Google Scholar
  223. Kim JS, Harikrishnan R, Kim MC, Balasundaram C, Heo MS (2010) Dietary administration of Zooshikella sp. to enhance the innate immune response and disease resistance of Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus iniae. Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:104–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Klose V, Bayer K, Bruckbeck R, Schatzmayr G, Loibner AP (2010) In-vitro antagonistic activities of animal intestinal strains against swine associated pathogens. Vet Microbiol 144:515–521Google Scholar
  225. Kolndadacha OD, Adikwu IA, Okaeme AN, Atiribom RY, Mohammed A, Musa YM (2011) The role of probiotics in aquaculture in Nigeria (a review). Cont J Fish Aquatic Sci 5(1):8–15Google Scholar
  226. Korkea-aho TL, Heikkinen J, Thompson KD, von Wright A, Austin B (2011) Pseudomonas sp. M174 inhibits the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. J Appl Microbiol 111:266–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Korkea-aho TL, Papadoupoulou A, Heikkinen J, von Wright A, Adams A, Austin B, Thompson KD (2012) Pseudomonas sp. M162 confers protection against rainbow trout fry syndrome by stimulating immunity. J Appl Microbiol 113:24–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Kuhlwein H, Merrifield DL, Rawling MD, Foey AD, Davies SJ (2013) Effects of dietary β-(1,3) (1,6)-d-glucan supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato-immunological profile of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. doi:10.1111/jpn.12078
  229. Kumar R, Mukherjee SC, Pani Prasad K, Pal AK (2006) Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic to Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham). Aquac Res 37:1215–1221Google Scholar
  230. Kumar R, Mukherjee SC, Ranjan R, Nayak SK (2008) Enhanced innate immune parameters in Labeo rohita (Ham) following oral administration of Bacillus subtilis. Fish Shellfish Immunol 24:168–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Lacroix C, Grattepanche E, Doleyres Y, Bergmaier D (2004) Immobilized cell technology for the dairy industry. In: Nevidovic Y, Willaert R (eds) Cell immobilization biotechnology focus in biotechnology. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  232. Lakshmanan R, Soundarapandian P (2008) Effects of commercial probiotics on large scale culture of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). J Microbiol 3:198–203Google Scholar
  233. Lakshmi B, Viswanath B, SaiGopal DVR (2013) Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture. J Pathogens Article ID 424123Google Scholar
  234. Lalles JP, Bosi P, Smidt H, Stokes CR (2007) Weaning-a challenge to gut physiologists. Livestock Sci 108:82–93Google Scholar
  235. Lalloo R, Ramchuran S, Ramduth D, Gorgens J, Gardiner N (2007) Isolation and selection of Bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish. J Appl Microbiol 103:1471–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Lalloo R, Moonsamy G, Ramchuran S, Gorgens J, Gardiner N (2010) Competitive exclusion as a mode of action of a novel Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent. Lett Appl Microbiol 50:563–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Lamboley L, Lacroix C, Champagne JC (1997) Continuous mixed strain mesophilic lactic starter production in supplemented whey permeate medium using immobilized cell technology. Biotechnol Bioeng 56:502–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Lara-Flores M (2011) The use of probiotic in aquaculture: an overview. Int Res J Microbiol 2:471–478Google Scholar
  239. Lara-Flores M, Aguirre-Guzman G (2009) The use of probiotic in fish and shrimp aquaculture (a review). In: Perez-Guerra N, Pastrana-Castro L (eds) Probiotics: production, evaluation and uses in animal feed. Research Signpost, Kerala, pp 75–89Google Scholar
  240. Lara-Flores M, Olvera N, Guzman M, Opez ML (2003) Use of the bacteria Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture 216(1–4):193–201Google Scholar
  241. Lategan MJ, Torpy FR, Gibson LF (2004) Control of saprolegniosis in the eel (Anguilla australis, Richardson) by Aeromonas media strain A199. Aquaculture 240:19–27Google Scholar
  242. LeBlanc S, Middleton S, Gilmour KM, Currie S (2011) Chronic social stress impairs thermal tolerance in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Exp Biol 214:1721–1731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Lee LEJ, Stassen J, McDonald A, Culshaw C, Venosa AD, Lee K (2002) Snails as biomonitors of oil-spill and bioremediation strategies. Bioremediat J 6(4):373–386Google Scholar
  244. Lesel R, Fromageot C, Lesel M (1986) Cellulase digestibility in grass carp (Ctenopharyn godonidella) and in gold fish (Carassius auratus). Aquaculture 54:11–17Google Scholar
  245. Lesser MP (2006) Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology. Ann Rev Physiol 68:253–278Google Scholar
  246. Leyva-Madrigal KY, Luna-González A, Escobedo-Bonilla CM, Fierro-Coronado JA, Maldonado-Mendoza IE (2011) Screening for potential probiotic bacteria to reduce prevalence of WSSV and IHHNV in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under experimental conditions. Aquaculture 322–323:16–22Google Scholar
  247. Li J, Tan B, Mai K, Ai Q, Zhang W, Liufu Z, Xu W (2008) Immune responses and resistance against Vibrio parahaemolyticus induced by probiotic bacterium Arthrobacter XE-7 in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). J World Aquac Soc 39(4):477–489Google Scholar
  248. Li J, Tan B, Mai K (2009) Dietary probiotic Bacillus OJ and isomaltooligosaccharides influence the intestine microbial populations, immune responses and resistance to white spot syndrome virus in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 291:35–40Google Scholar
  249. Liao S, Zheng G, Wang A, Huang H, Sun R (2006) Isolation and characterization of a novel aerobic denitrifier from shrimp pond. Ecol Soc China 26(11):3018–3724Google Scholar
  250. Lim HJ, Kapareiko D, Schott EJ, Hanif A, Wikfors GH (2011) Isolation and evaluation of new probiotic bacteria for use in shellfish hatcheries: I. Isolation and screening for bioactivity. J Shellfish Res 30:609–615Google Scholar
  251. Lin SH, Guan Y, Luo L, Pan Y (2012) Effects of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides and Bacillus coagulans on growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquaculture 342–343:36–41Google Scholar
  252. Linders LJM, Meerdink G, van’t Riet K (1996) Influence of temperature and drying rate on the dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum. Food Bioprod Process 74:110–114Google Scholar
  253. Lindsay GJH, Harris JE (1980) Carboxymethyl cellulose activity in the digestive tracts of fish. J Fish Biol 6:219–233Google Scholar
  254. Ling YH, Shang SY, Long MR, Dan YJ (2012) PCR-DGGE analysis of the autochthonous gut microbiota of grouper (Ephinephelus coioides) following probiotic Bacillus clausii administration. Aquac Res 43(4):489–497Google Scholar
  255. Liu PC, Yeh YP, Lee KK (2000) Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) with red-gut syndrome. Fish Dis Resist 20:79–86Google Scholar
  256. Liu JY, Li AH, Ji C, Yang WM (2009a) First description of a novel Weissella sp. as an opportunistic pathogen for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China. Vet Microbiol 136:314–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Liu W, Han F, Zhang X (2009b) RanGTPase regulates hemolytic phagocytosis of shrimp by interaction with myosin. J Proteome Res 8(3):1198–1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Livingstone DR (2001) Contaminant-stimulated reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage in aquatic organisms. Mar Pollut Bull 42:656–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Logan CA, Somero GN (2011) Effects of thermal acclimation on transcriptional responses to acute heat stress in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300(6):1373–1383Google Scholar
  260. Longeon A, Peduzzi J, Barthelemy M, Corre S, Nicolas JL, Guyot M (2004) Purification and partial identification of novel antimicrobial protein from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain X153. Mar Biotechnol 6:633–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Lopes RB, Olinda RA, Souza BAI, Cyrino JEP, Dias CTS, Queiroz JF, Tavares LHS (2011) Efficiency of bio augmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture system. Braz J Biol 71:409–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Luczkovich JJ, Stellwag EJ (1993) Isolation of cellulolytic microbes from the intestinal tract of the pinfish (Lagodon rhomboids): size-related changes in diet and microbial abundance. Mar Biol 116:381–388Google Scholar
  263. Lupatsch GA, Santos JW, Schrama JA, Verreth J (2010) Effect of stocking density and feeding level on energy expenditure and stress responsiveness in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 298:245–250Google Scholar
  264. Lushchak VI (2011) Adaptive response to oxidative stress: bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Comp Biochem Physiol Toxicol Pharmacol 153:175–190Google Scholar
  265. MacDonald NL, Stark JR, Austin B (1986) Bacterial flora associated in gastrointestinal tract of Dover sole (Solea solea) with special emphasis on the possible role of bacteria in nutrition of the host. FEMS Microbiol Lett 35:107–111Google Scholar
  266. Macey BM, Coyne VE (2005) Improved growth rate and disease resistance in farmed Haliotis midae through probiotics treatment. Aquaculture 245(1–4):249–261Google Scholar
  267. Magda ME, Sabry SE, Mohamed AE, Santoch L, Said MD, Neven AE (2011) The viability of probiotics as a factor influencing the immune response in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Egypt J Aquatic Biol Fish 15(1):105–124Google Scholar
  268. Magnadottir B (2006) Innate immunity of fish (overview). Fish Shellfish Immunol 20:137–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Magnadottir B (2010) Immunological control of fish diseases. J Mar Biotechnol 12:36–379Google Scholar
  270. Mahdhi A, Amoun F, Bakhrouf A (2011) Inhibitory activity and adhesive ability of potential probiotics Bacillus sp. to confer protection for Artemia gnotobiotic culture against pathogenic Vibrio sp. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 35(4):227–233Google Scholar
  271. Maillard VM, Boardman GD, Nyland JE, Kuhn DD (2005) Water quality and sludge characterization at raceway-system trout farms. Aquacult Eng 33:271–284Google Scholar
  272. Manefield M, de Nys R, Kumar N, Read R, Givskov M, Steinberg P, Kjelleberg SA (1999) Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. Microbiology 145:283–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Mao L, Bryantsev AL, Chechenova MB, Shelden EA (2005) Cloning, characterization, and heat stress induced redistribution of a protein homologous to human Hsp27 in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exp Cell Res 306:30–241Google Scholar
  274. Maqsood S, Singh P, Samoon MH, Munir K (2011) Emerging role of immunostimulants in combating the disease outbreak in aquaculture. Int Aquatic Res 3:147–163Google Scholar
  275. Marcel MP, Luis RMC, Rogelio RAEN (2009) Cortisol and glucose: reliable indicators of fish stress? Pan-Am J Aquat Sci 4:158–178Google Scholar
  276. Marco-Noales E, Biosca EG, Rojo C, Amaro C (2004) Influence of aquatic microbiota on the survival of the human and eel pathogen Vibriovulnificus serovar. Environ Microbiol 6:364–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Martin-Visscher LA, Gong X, Duszyk M, Vederas JC (2009) The three-dimensional structure of carnocyclin A reveals that many circular bacteriocins share a common structural motif. J Biol Chem 284:28674–28681PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Mathew S, Kumar KA, Anandan R, Nair PGV, Devadasan K (2007) Changes in tissue defence system in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected Penaeus monodon. Comp Biochem Physiol 145:315–320Google Scholar
  279. Matias HB, Yusoff FM, Shariff M, Azhari O (2002) Effects of commercial microbial products on water quality in tropical shrimp culture ponds. Asian Fish Sci 15:239–248Google Scholar
  280. McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, Morgan CA (2002) Animal nutrition, 6th ed. Pearson Education Limited (Prentice Hall) UK, pp 693. ISBN 0-582-41906-9Google Scholar
  281. McLoughlin MF, Graham DH (2007) Alpha virus infections in salmonids (a review). J Fish Dis 30:511–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Meena DK, Das P, Kumar S, Mandal SC, Prusty AK, Singh SK, Akhtar MS, Behera BK, Kumar K, Pal AK, Mukherjee SC (2013a) Beta-glucan: an ideal immunostimulant in aquaculture (a review). Fish Physiol Biochem 39(3):431–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Meena DK, Hassan MA, Aftabuddin Md, Saha S, Subhadeep D, Ganguly D, Jha BC, Sharma AP (2013b) Use of DNA/RNA ratio as a growth indicator tool for Labeo rohita fingerlings reared in selected cages in inland open water. In: Abstracts of 100th the Indian Science Congress, held at Kolkata during 3–7 January, 2013Google Scholar
  284. Mehrabi Z, Firouzbakhsh F, Jafarpour A (2011) Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotic on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 24:0396–1439Google Scholar
  285. Mehran AK, Masoumeh M (2012) Response of juvenile freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to different levels of Bacillus subtilis isolated from chicken intestine as probiotics. J Agric Sci Technol B 2:988–996Google Scholar
  286. Mehran AK, Masoumeh M (2013) Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Aeromonas hydrophila infection resistance in juvenile freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Aquac Int 21(3):553–562Google Scholar
  287. Merrifield DL (2012) Probiotics, prebiotics in aquatic animals. Glob Aquac Advocate 15(1):42–43 Google Scholar
  288. Merrifield DL, Harper GM, Dimitroglou A, Ringo E, Davies SJ (2010a) Possible influence of probiotic adhesion to intestinal mucosa on the activity and morphology of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) enterocytes. Aquac Res 41:1268–1272Google Scholar
  289. Merrifield DL, Bradley G, Baker RTM, Davies SJ (2010b) Probiotic applications for rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss Walbaum) II. Effects on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal microbiota and related health criteria post antibiotic treatment. Aquac Nutr 16:496–503Google Scholar
  290. Merrifield DL, Dimitroglou A, Foey A, Davies SJ, Baker RMT, Bogwald J, Castex M, Ringo E (2010c) The current status and future focus of probiotic and prebiotic applications for salmonids. Aquaculture 302:1–18Google Scholar
  291. Mette H, Ana R, Fernanda F, Jette M, Lone G (2004) Seasonal incidence of autochthonous antagonistic roseobacter sp. and vibrionaceae strains in a turbot larva (Scophthalmus maximus) rearing system. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(12):7288–7294Google Scholar
  292. Miethke M, Marahiel MA (2007) Siderophore-based iron acquisition and pathogen control. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:413–451PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Milanese M, Chelossi E, Manconi R, Sara A, Sidri M, Pronzato R (2003) The marine sponge Chondrilla nucula Schmidt, 1862 as an elective candidate for bioremediation in integrated aquaculture. Biomol Eng 20:363–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Millero FJ (2002) Chemical oceanography, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  295. Modesto M, D’Aimmo RM, Stefanini I, Trevisi P, De Fillipi S, Casini L, Mazzoni M, Bosi P, Biavati B (2009) A novel strategy to select Bifidobacterium strains and prebiotics as natural growth promoters in newly weaned pigs. Livestock Sci 122:248–258Google Scholar
  296. Mohamed AH, Traifalgar RFM, Augusto ES (2013) Assessment of probiotic application on natural food, water quality and growth performance of saline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cultured in concrete tanks. Fish Aquac J 75:1–7Google Scholar
  297. Mohapatra S, Chakraborty T, Prusty AK, Das P, Prasad PK, Mohanta KN (2012) Use of different microbial probiotics in the diet of rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings: effect on growth, nutrient digestibility and retention, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora. Aquac Nutr 18:1–11Google Scholar
  298. Mohapatra S, Chakraborty T, Kumar V, DeBoeck G, Mohanta KN (2013) Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotics intervention. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 97(3):405–430Google Scholar
  299. Mohideen MMA, Mohanb TS, Mashrooraa KRF, Lakshmic KK, Hussain MIZ (2010) Pseudomonas fluorescens is an effective probiotic against fish-pathogenic Vibrio sp. Int J Biol Technol 1(2):118–123Google Scholar
  300. Moriarty DJW (1997) The role of microorganisms in aquaculture ponds. Aquaculture 151:333–349Google Scholar
  301. Moriarty DJW (1998) Control of luminous Vibrio sp. in penaeid aquaculture ponds. Aquaculture 164:351–358Google Scholar
  302. Morya VK, Choi W, Kim EK (2013) Isolation and characterization of Pseudoalteromonas from fermented Korean food, as an antagonist to Vibrio harveyi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. doi:10.1007/s00253-013-4937-3
  303. Mukherjee S, Jana BB (2007) Water quality affects SDH activity, protein content and RNA: DNA ratios in fish (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Oreochromis mossambicus) raised in ponds of sewage-fed fish farm. Aquaculture 262:105–119Google Scholar
  304. Muller C, Fetzner S (2013) A Pseudomonas putida bioreporter for the detection of enzymes active on 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone signalling molecules. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(2):751–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Multhoff G (2007) Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70): membrane location, export and immunological relevance. Methods 43:229–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Munoz-Atienza E, Beatriz GS, Carlos A, Cristina C, Rosa DC, Pablo EH, Carmen H, Luis MC (2013) Antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture. BMC Microbiol 13:15PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Munro PD, Birkbeck TH, Barbour A (1993) Influence of rate of bacterial colonization of the gut of turbot larvae on larval survival. In: Reinertsen H, Dahle LA, Jørgensen L, Tvinnereim K (eds) Fish farming technology. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 85–92Google Scholar
  308. Naidu AS, Bidlack WR, Clemens RA (1999) Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 39:13–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Naik ATR, Murthy HS, Ramesha TJ (1999) Effect of graded levels of G-probiotic on growth, survival and feed conversion of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Fish Technol Lit 36:63–66Google Scholar
  310. Nayak SK (2010) Probiotics and immunity: a fish perspective. Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:2–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Nayak SK, Swain P, Mukherjee SC (2007) Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic and vitamin C on the immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham). Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:892–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Nekoubin H, Sudagar M (2012) Assessment of the effects of synbiotic (Biomin imbo) via supplementation with artificial diet on growth performance and survival rate in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). World J Zool 7(3):236–240Google Scholar
  313. Nenci A, Becker C, Wullaert A, Gareus R, van Loo G (2007) Epithelial links innate immunity to chronic intestinal inflammation. Nature 446:557–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Neves JV, Wilson JM, Rodrigues PN (2009) Transferrin and ferritin response to bacterial infection: the role of the liver and brain in fish. Dev Comp Immunol 33(7):848–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Newaj-Fyzul A, Adesiyun AA, Mutani A, Ramsubhag A, Brunt J, Austin B (2007) Bacillus subtilis AB1 controls Aeromonas infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). J Appl Microbiol 103:1699–1706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Nikoskelainen S, Salminen S, Bylund G, Ouwehand AC (2001) Characterization of the properties of human and dairy derived probiotics for prevention of infectious diseases in fish. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:2430–2435PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Nikoskelaine S, Ouwehand A, Salminen S, Bylund G (2003) Protection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Aquaculture 198:229–236Google Scholar
  318. Nimrat S, Suksawat S, Boonthai T, Vuthiphandchai V (2012) Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vet Microbiol 159:443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Noh H, Han KI, Won TH, Choi YJ (1994) Effect of antibiotics, enzymes, yeast culture and probiotics on the growth performance of Israeli carp. Korean J Anim Sci 36:480–486Google Scholar
  320. Nordgreen A, Penglase S, Hamre K (2013) Increasing the levels of the essential trace elements Se, Zn, Cu and Mn in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) used as live feed. Aquaculture 380–383:120–129Google Scholar
  321. North BP, Turnbull JF, Ellis T, Porter MJ, Migaud H, Bron J, Bromage NR (2006) The impact of stocking density on the welfare of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 255:466–479Google Scholar
  322. Oke AO, Olaoye OJ, Nnali KE (2013) Recent advances in fish diseases treatment: probiotics as alternative therapy to antibiotics in aquaculture (a review). Adv Agric Sci Eng Res 3(2):668–676Google Scholar
  323. Olmos J, Ochoa L, Paniagua-Michel J, Rosalia C (2011) Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100 % fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains. Mar Drugs 9:1119–1132PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Oppegard C, Rogne P, Emanuelsen L, Kristiansen PE, Fimland G, Nissen-Meyer J (2007) The two-peptide class II bacteriocins: structure, production, and mode of action. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 13:210–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. O’Sullivan DJ (2001) Screening of intestinal micro flora for effective probiotic bacteria. J Agric Food Chem 49:751–760Google Scholar
  326. Ouwehand AC, Salminen S, Isolauri E (2002) Probiotics: an overview of beneficial effects. Antoine Van Leewenhoek 82:279–289Google Scholar
  327. Padmavathi P, Sunitha K, Veeraiah K (2012) Efficacy of probiotics in improving water quality and bacterial flora in fish ponds. Afr J Microbiol Res 6(49):7471–7478Google Scholar
  328. Padmini E (2010) Physiological adaptations of stressed fish to polluted environments: role of heat shock proteins. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 206:1–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Pais R, Khushiramani R, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I (2008) Effect of immunostimulants on the haemolymph haemagglutinins of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Aquac Res 39:1339–1345Google Scholar
  330. Paiva-Maia ED, Alves-Modesto G, Otavio-Brito L, Olivera A, Vasconcelos-Gesteira TC (2013) Effect of a commercial probiotic on bacterial and phytoplankton concentration in intensive shrimp farming (Litopenaeus vannamei) recirculation systems. Latin Am J Aquat Res 41(1):126–137Google Scholar
  331. Pandiyan P, Balaraman D, Thirunavukkarasu R, George EGJ, Subaramaniyan K, Manikkam S, Sadayappan B (2013) Probiotics in aquaculture (review). Drug Invent Today 5(1):55–59Google Scholar
  332. Panigrahi A, Kiron V, Kobayashi T, Puangkaew J, Satoh S, Sugita H (2004) Immune responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) induced by a potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 1136. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 102:379–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Panigrahi A, Kiron V, Puangkaew J, Kobayashi T, Satoh S, Sugita H (2005) The viability of probiotic bacteria as a factor influencing the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 243:241–254Google Scholar
  334. Panigrahi A, Kiron V, Satoh S, Hirono I, Kobayashi T, Sugita H, Puangkaew J, Aoki T (2007) Immune modulation and expression of cytokine genes in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss upon probiotic feeding. Dev Comp Immunol 31:372–382Google Scholar
  335. Pankhurst NW, King HR (2010) Temperature and salmonid reproduction: implications for aquaculture. J Fish Biol 76:69–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Paredes D, Kuschk P, Mbwette TSA, Stange F, Muller RA, Koser H (2007) New aspects of microbial nitrogen transformations in the context of wastewater treatment (a review). Eng Life Sci 7:13–25Google Scholar
  337. Park H, Ahn IY, Lee HE (2007) Expression of Hsp70 in the thermally stressed Antarctic clam (Laternula elliptica). Cell Stress Chaperons 12:275–282Google Scholar
  338. Parker RB (1974) Probiotics, the other half of the antibiotic story. Anim Nutr Health 29:4–8Google Scholar
  339. Partida-Arangure BO, Luna-González A, Fierro-Coronado JA, del Carmen Flores-Miranda M, González-Ocampo HA (2013) Effect of inulin and probiotic bacteria on growth, survival, immune response, and prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured under laboratory conditions. Afr J Biotechnol 12(21):3366–3375Google Scholar
  340. Peraza-Gomez V, Luna-González A, Campa-Córdova AI, López-Meyer M, Fierro-Coronado JA, Alvarez-Ruiz P (2009) Probiotic microorganisms and antiviral plants reduce mortality and prevalence of WSSV in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cultured under laboratory conditions. Aquac Res 40:1481–1489Google Scholar
  341. Perez-Sanchez T, Balcazar JL, García Y, Halaihel N, Vendrell D, DeBlas I, Merrifield DL, Ruiz-Zarzuela I (2011) Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with inhibitory activity against Lactococcus garvieae. J Fish Dis 34:499–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Pichon D, Cudennec B, Huchette S, Djediat C, Renault T, Paillard C, Auzoux-Bordenave S (2013) Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures. Cytotechnology 65(5):759–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Picot A, Lacroix C (2002) Encapsulation of bifidobacteria in whey protein-based alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:869–873Google Scholar
  344. Pirarat N, Ponpornpisit A, Rodkhum C, Chansue N (2008) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a potential human-derived probiotic candidate for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture. In: Proceedings, the 15th congress of FAVA, Bangkok, Thailand, 27–30 Oct, pp 141–142Google Scholar
  345. Pirarat N, Pinpimai K, Endo M, Katagiri T, Ponpornpisit A, Chansue N, Maita M (2011) Modulation of intestinal morphology and immunity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Res Vet Sci 91:92–97Google Scholar
  346. Pirzada ZA, Ali SA, Khan BM, Rasool SA (2004) Production and physico-chemical characterization of bacteriocins-like inhibitory substances from marine bacterium ZM81. Pak J Biol Sci 7:2026–2030Google Scholar
  347. Powell A, Pope EC, Eddy FE, Roberts EC, Shields RJ (2011) Enhanced immune defences in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) post-exposure to a vibrio vaccine. J Invertebr Pathol 107(2):95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Prasad L, Mallik SK, Arup N, Neetu S (2005a) Probiotics in aquaculture. Aquac Int 25–27Google Scholar
  349. Prasad S, Morris PC, Hansen R, Meaden PG, Austin B (2005b) A novel bacteriocins-like substance (BLIS) from a pathogenic strain of Vibrio harveyi. Microbiology 151:3051–3058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Priya G (2006) Effect of probiotic bacteria on growth, food utilization and survival of Labio rohita administered through different route. MPhil dissertation, GovtArts College, KumbakonamGoogle Scholar
  351. Prowse TD, Furgal C, Bonsal BR, Edwards TW (2009) Climatic conditions in northern Canada: past and future. Ambio 38:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Prusty AK, Kohli MPS, Sahu NP, Pal AK, Saharan N, Mohapatra S, Gupta SK (2011) Effect of short term exposure of fenvalerate on biochemical and haematological responses in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. Pesticide Biochem Physiol 100:124–129Google Scholar
  353. Purwandari AR, Chen HY (2013) Effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis on intestinalmicrobial diversity and immunity of Orange spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. J Appl Biotechnol 1(1):25–36Google Scholar
  354. Qi Z, Xiao-Hua Z, Boon N, Bossier P (2009) Probiotics in aquaculture of China: current state, problems and prospect. Aquaculture 290:15–21Google Scholar
  355. Queiroz JF, Boyd CE (1998) Effects of a bacterial inoculums in channel catfish ponds. J World Aquac Soc 29:67–73Google Scholar
  356. Radfar M, Farhoomand P (2008) The role of probiotic and source of lactose as feed additives on performance and gut improvement in broilers. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 3:179–182Google Scholar
  357. Rafiee G, Saad CR (2005) Nutrient cycle and sludge production during different stages of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) growth in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture 244:109–118Google Scholar
  358. Rahiman KMM, Jesmi Y, Thomas AP, Hatha AAM (2010) Probiotic effect of Bacillus NL110 and Vibrio NE17 on the survival, growth performance and immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Aquac Res 41(9):120–134Google Scholar
  359. Rahman MH, Sufwzuki S, Kawai K (2001) Formation of viable but non culturable state (VBNC) of Aeromonas hydrophila and its virulence in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Microbiol Res 156:103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Raida MK, Larsen JL, Nielsen ME, Buchmann K (2003) Enhanced resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus myskiss) against Yersinia ruckeri challenge following oral administration of Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis (Bio plus 2B). J Fish Dis 26:495–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Raj AJA, Suresh AV, Marimuthu K, Appelbaum S (2008) Probiotic performance on fish fry during packing, transportation stress and post-transportation condition. J Fish Aquat Sci 3:152–157Google Scholar
  362. Ramirez RF, Dixon BA (2003) Enzyme production by obligate intestinal anaerobic bacteria isolated from oscars (Astronotus ocellatus), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) and southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). Aquaculture 227:417–426Google Scholar
  363. Ramos EA, Relucio JL, Torres-Villanueva CA (2005) Gene expression in tilapia following oral delivery of chitosan-encapsulated plasmid DNA incorporated into fish feeds. Mar Biotechnol (New York, NY) 7:89–94Google Scholar
  364. Ran C, Carrias A, Williams MA, Capps N, Dan BCT (2012) Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens. PLoS ONE 7(9):e45793PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Rasch M, Buch C, Austin B, Slierendrecht WJ, Ekmann KS, Larsen JL, Johansen C, Riedel K, Eberl L, Givskov M, Gram L (2004) An inhibitor of bacterial quorum sensing reduces mortalities caused by vibriosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Syst Appl Microbiol 27:350–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Ravi AV, Musthafa KS, Jegathammbal G, Kathiresan K, Pandian SK (2007) Screening and evaluation of probiotics as a biocontrol agent against pathogenic Vibrios in marine aquaculture. Lett Appl Microbiol 45(2):219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Ray AK, Ghosh K, Ringo E (2012) Enzyme-producing bacteria isolated from fish gut: a review. Aquac Nutr 18(5):465–492Google Scholar
  368. Reimer G (1982) The influence of diet on the digestive enzymes of the amazon fish (Bricon melanopterus). J Fish Biol 21:637–642Google Scholar
  369. Rendón L, Balcazar J (2003) Inmunología de camarones: concept osbásicosyrecientes advances. Revista Aqua TIC 19:27–33Google Scholar
  370. Rengpipat S (2005) Probiotic bacteria: are they beneficial? In: Walker VP, Lester RG, Bongad-Reantaso MG (eds) Proceedings of the 5th symposium on diseases in Asian aquaculture. Asian Fisheries SocietyGoogle Scholar
  371. Rengpipat S, Rukpratanporn S, Piyatiratitivorakul S, Menasaveta P (2000) Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium, Bacillus s11. Aquaculture 191:271–288Google Scholar
  372. Ringo E, Birkbeck TH (1999) Intestinal microflora of fish larvae and fry. Aquac Res 30:73–93Google Scholar
  373. Ringo E, Vadstein O (1998) Colonization of Vibrio pelagius and Aeromona scaviae in early developing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae. J Appl Microbiol 84:227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Ringo E, Strom E, Tabachek JA (1995) Intestinal microflora of salmonids (a review). Aquac Res 26:773–789Google Scholar
  375. Ringo E, Salinas I, Olsen RE, Nyhaug A, Myklebust R, Mayhew TM (2007) Histological changes in intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following in vitro exposure to pathogenic and probiotic bacterial strains. Cell Tissue Res 328:109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Ringo E, Lovmo L, Kristiansen M, Bakken Y, Salinas I, Myklebust R, Olsen RE, Mayhew TM (2010) Lactic acid bacteria vs. pathogens in the gastro-intestine of fish (a review). Aquac Res 41:451–467Google Scholar
  377. Ringo E, Olsen RE, Vecino JLG, Wadsworth S, Song SK (2012) Use of immunostimulants and nucleotides in aquaculture (a review). J Mar Sci Res Dev 1:104Google Scholar
  378. Rio-Zaragoza OBD, Fajer-Avila EJ, Almazan-Rueda P (2011) Influence of b-glucan on innate immunity and resistance of Lutjanus guttatus to an experimental infection of dactylogyrid monogeneans. Parasite Immunol 33:483–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Ripp S, Layton AC, Sayler GS (2011) The microbe as a reporter: microbial bioreporter sensing technologies for chemical and biological detection. In: Sen K, Ashbolt NJ (eds) Environmental microbiology: current technology and water applications caister. Academic Press, Norfolk, pp 281–308Google Scholar
  380. Robertson PAW, O’Dowd C, Burrells C, Williams P, Austin B (2000) Use of Carnobacterium sp. as a probiotics for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Aquaculture 185(3–4):235–243Google Scholar
  381. Roch P (1999) Defense mechanisms and disease prevention in farmed marine invertebrates. Aquaculture 172:125–145Google Scholar
  382. Rodriguez J, Le Moullac G (2000) State of the art of immunological tools and health control of penaeid shrimp. Aquaculture 191:109–119Google Scholar
  383. Rodriguez J, Espinosa Y, Echeverria F, Cardenas G, Roman R, Stern S (2007) Exposure to probiotics and β-1, 3/1, 6-glucans in larviculture modifies the immune response of Penaeus vannamei juveniles and both the survival to white spot syndrome virus challenge and pond culture. Aquaculture 273:405–415Google Scholar
  384. Rodriguez-Estrada U, Satoh S, Haga Y, Fushimi H, Sweetman J (2009) Effects of single and combined supplementation of Enterococcus faecalis, mannanoligosaccharide and polyhydrobutyric acid on growth performance and immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquac Sci 57:609–617Google Scholar
  385. Ronald MA, Terry CH (2011) Oil biodegradation and bioremediation: a tale of the two worst spills in U.S. history. Environ Sci Technol 45:6709–6715Google Scholar
  386. Roth O, Kurtz J (2010) Phagocytosis mediates specificity in the immune defence of an invertebrate, the woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Dev Comp Immunol 33:1151–1155Google Scholar
  387. Rottmann RW, Francis-Floyd R, Durborow R (1992) The role of stress in fish disease. SRAC Publication Number 474Google Scholar
  388. Saenz de Rodriguez MA, Diaz-Rosales P, Chabrillon M, Smidt H, Arijo S, Leon-Rubio JM (2009) Effect of dietary administration of probiotics on growth and intestine functionally of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup1858). Aquac Nutr 15:177–185Google Scholar
  389. Sahandi J, Jafariyan H, Dehghan M, Hossein A, Shohreh P (2012) Direct inoculation of bacillus to rearing fish tanks effect on growth performance of two carp species fed with artemia. World Appl Sci J 20(5):687–690Google Scholar
  390. Sakata T, Kojima T, Fujieda M, Miyakozawa M, Takahashi M, Ushida K (1999) Probiotic preparation dose-dependently increase net production rates of organic acids and decrease that of ammonia by pig caecal bacteria in batch culture. Dig Dis Sci 44:1485–1493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Salah Mesalhy A, Yousef A, Ahlam A, Moahmed Fathi M (2008) Studies on B. subtilis and, Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immuneresponse and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol 25:128–136Google Scholar
  392. Salinas I, Cuesta A, Esteban MA, Meseguer J (2005) Dietary administration of Lactobacillus delbriieckii and Bacillus substilis, single or combined, on gilthead seabream cellular innate immune responses. Fish Shellfish Immunol 19:67–77Google Scholar
  393. Salminen S, Isolauri E, Salminen E (1996) Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilizing the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains for future challenges. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 70:347–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Salyers AA, White DD (2002) Bacterial pathogenesis, a molecular approach. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  395. Sanchez W, Ait-Aissa S, Palluel O, Ditche JM, Porcher JM (2007) Preliminary investigation of multi-biomarker responses in three spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) sampled in contaminated streams. Ecotoxicology 16:279–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Sanchooli O, Moradloo AH, Ghorbani R (2012) Measurement of alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme enzymes in epidermal mucus of different weights of Cyprinus carpio. World J Fish Mar Sci 4(5):521–524Google Scholar
  397. Sarma KP, Sahu AK, Ayyappan NP, Baruah K (2009) Dietary high protein and vitamin C mitigates endo-sulfanoxicity in the spotted murrel (Channa punctatus, Bloch 1793). Sci Total Environ 407:3668–3673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Saurabh S, Sahoo PK (2008) Lysozyme: an important defence molecule of fish innate immune system. Aquac Res 39(3):223–239Google Scholar
  399. Sayed SH, Zakaria A, Mohamed GA, Mohamed KK (2011) Use of probiotics as growth promoter, anti-bacterial and their effects on the physiological parameters and immune response of Oreochromis Niloticus (Lin) fingerlings. J Arab Aquac Soc 6(2):201–222Google Scholar
  400. Sayeda MA, Mohamed IAW, Wafaa TA (2011) Evaluation of Azotobacter and Azospirillum biofertilizers as a probiotics in Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture. J Fish Aquat Sci 6:535–544Google Scholar
  401. Schulze AD, Abayomi OA, Tattersall SA, Miller KM (2006) Bacterial diversity in a marine hatchery: balance between pathogenic and potentially probiotic bacterial strains. Aquaculture 256(1–4):50–73Google Scholar
  402. Sekhon BS, Jairath S (2010) Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics: an overview. J Pharm Educ Res 1:13–36Google Scholar
  403. Selye H (1973) The evolution of the stress concept. Am Sci 61:692–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. Selye H (1985) Stress: eustress, distress and human perspectives. In: Day S (ed) Life stress, vol III. Van Nostrand Reinhold, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  405. Senok AC, Ismeel AY, Botta GA (2005) Probiotics: facts and myths. Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 11:958–960Google Scholar
  406. Shan S, Xiao Z, Huang W, Dou S (2008) Effect of photoperiod on growth, mortality and digestive enzymes in miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles. Aquaculture 281:70–76Google Scholar
  407. Sharifuzzaman SM, Austin B (2010) Kocuria SM1 controls vibriosis in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). J Appl Microbiol 108(6):2162–2170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Sharma P, Ram C, Sihag CR, Gahlawat SK (2013) Relative efficacy of two probiotics in controlling the Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome disease in Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala Ham). J Fish Aquat Sci 8:305–322Google Scholar
  409. Shcherbina MA, Kazlawlene OP (1971) The reaction of the medium and the rate of absorption of nutrients in the intestine of car. J Ichthyol 11:81–85Google Scholar
  410. Shen WY, Fu LL, Li WF, Zhu YR (2010) Effect of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis on the growth, performance, immune response and antioxidant activities of the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquac Res 41:1691–1698Google Scholar
  411. Sihag RC, Sharma P (2012) Probiotics: the new ecofriendly alternative measures of disease control for sustainable aquaculture. J Fish Aquat Sci 7:72–103Google Scholar
  412. Silva EFB, Froes CN, Souza MD, Soares R, Peixoto S, Wasielesky W, Ballester ELC (2012) Use of probiotics in the production of post larvae of the pink shrimp. Braz Agricult Res 47(6):869–874Google Scholar
  413. Silva EFB, Soares MA, Calazans NF, Vogeley JL, Valle BC, Soares R, Peixoto S (2013) Effect of probiotic, Bacillus sp. addition during larvae and postlarvae culture of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquac Res 44:13–21Google Scholar
  414. Simon O (2010) An interdisciplinary study on the mode of action of probiotics in pigs. J Anim Feed Sci 19:230–243Google Scholar
  415. Sivaraman GK, Barat A, Ali S, Mahanta PC (2012) Prediction of fish growth rate and food availability in the Himalayan water bodies by estimation of RNA/DNA ratios. IUP J Genet Evol 4(3):15–19Google Scholar
  416. Skjermo J, Vadstein O (1999) Techniques for microbial control in the intensive rearing of marine larvae. Aquaculture 177:333–343Google Scholar
  417. Skjermo J, Salvesen I, Oie G, Olsen Y, Vadstein O (1997) Microbially matured water: a technique for selection of a non-opportunistic bacterial flora in water that may improve performance of marine larvae. Aquac Int 5:13–28Google Scholar
  418. Smith TR, Buckley LJ (2003) RNA-DNA ratio in scales from juvenile cod provides a nonlethal measure of feeding condition. Trans Am Fish Soc 132:9–17Google Scholar
  419. Smith KF, Schmidt V, Rosen GE, Amaral-Zettler L (2012) Microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water. PLoS ONE 7(9):e39971PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Soccol CR, de Souza Vandenberghe LP, Spier MR, Medeiros ABP, Yamaguishi CT, De Dea Lindner J, Pandey A, Thomaz-Soccol V (2010) The potential of probiotics (a review). Food Technol Biotechnol 48(4):413–434Google Scholar
  421. Sochor J, Zitka O, Hynek D, Jilkova E, Krejcova L, Trnkova L, Adam V, Hubalek J, Vrba R, Kynicky J, Kizek R (2011) Bio-sensing of cadmium (II) ions using Staphylococcus aureus. Sensors 11:10638–10663PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Sole M, Potrykus J, Fernandez Diaz C, Blasco J (2004) Variations on stress defences and metallothionein levels in the Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) during early larval stages. Fish Physiol Biochem 30:57–66Google Scholar
  423. Sommer F, Backhed F (2013) The gut microbiota-masters of host development and physiology. Nat Rev Microbiol 11:227–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Song Z, Wu T, Cai L, Zhang L, Zheng X (2006) Effects of dietary supplementation with Clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in Miichtys miiuy. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 7:596–602Google Scholar
  425. Sorroza L, Padilla D, Acosta F, Roman L, Grasso V, Vega J, Real F (2012) Characterization of the probiotic strain Vagococcus fluvialis in the protection of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against vibriosis by Vibrio anguillarum. Vet Microbiol 155:369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Soundarapandian P, Sankar S (2008) Effect of probiotics on the survival and production of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius). Int J Zool Res 4:35–41Google Scholar
  427. Souza DM, Suita SM, Leite FPL, Romano LA, Wasielesky W, Ballester ELC (2011) The use of probiotics during the nursery rearing of the pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1817) in a zero exchange system. Aquac Res 44(1):13–21Google Scholar
  428. Spanggaard B, Huber I, Nielsen J, Nielsen T, Appel KF, Gram L (2000) The microflora of rainbow trout intestine: a comparison of traditional and molecular identification. Aquaculture 182:1–15Google Scholar
  429. Sreedevi PR, Ramasubramanian V (2010) Biocontrol of ammonia pollution in the rearing water of fish by inducing a heterotrophic bacterial based food chain in the medium. Aquac Int 19:789–796Google Scholar
  430. Strom-Bestor M, Wiklund T (2011) Inhibitory activity of Pseudomonas sp. on Flavobacterium psychrophilum, in vitro. J Fish Dis 34:255–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Strong PJ, Burgess JE (2008) Treatment methods for wine-related and distillery wastewater (a review). Bioremediat J 12:70–87Google Scholar
  432. Subramanian S, MacKinnon SL, Ross NW (2007) A comparative study on innate immune parameters in the epidermal mucus of various fish species. Comp Biochem Physiol 148(3):256–263Google Scholar
  433. Sugita H, Kawasaki J, Deguchi Y (1997) Production of amylase by the intestinal microflora in cultured freshwater fish. Lett Appl Microbiol 24:105–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Sugita H, Hirose Y, Matsuo N, Deguchi Y (1998) Production of the antibacterial substance by Bacillus sp strain NM 12, an intestinal bacterium of Japanese coastal fish. Aquaculture 165:269–280Google Scholar
  435. Sugita H, Mizuki H, Itoi S (2012) Diversity of siderophore-producing bacteria isolated from the intestinal tracts of fish along the Japanese coast. Aquac Res 43(4):481–488Google Scholar
  436. Sun W, Griffiths MW (2000) Survival of bifidobacteria in yogurt and simulated survival in frozen fermented dairy desserts. Aust J Dairy Technol 55:139–144Google Scholar
  437. Suralikar V, Sahu NP (2001) Effect of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus cremoris on growth and survival of Marcrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae. J Appl Anim Res 20:117–124Google Scholar
  438. Sureda A, Box A, Enseñat M, Alou E, Tauler P, Deudero S, Pons A (2006) Enzymatic antioxidant response of a Labrid fish (Coris julis) liver to environmental caulerpenyne. Comp Biochem Physiol 144:191–196Google Scholar
  439. Suvarna VC, Boby VU (2005) Probiotics in human health: a current assessment. Curr Sci 88(11):1744–1748Google Scholar
  440. Swann LD (1990) A basic overview of aquaculture: history, water quality, types of aquaculture, and production methods Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant Program Extension Bulletin AS-457 and IL-IN-SG-E-90-2. Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana, p 10Google Scholar
  441. Talpur AD, Memon AJ, Khan MI, Ikhwanuddin M, Danish MM, Abol-Munafi AB (2012) Inhibition of pathogens by lactic acid bacteria and application as water additive multi isolates in early stages larviculture of P. Pelagicus. J Anim Plant Sci 22(1):54–64Google Scholar
  442. Tamaru CS, Ako H, Paguirigan R (2003) A manual on enrichment of artemia for use in freshwater ornamental fish production CTSA publication, CTSA/SGEP/ADP, Aqua KE Gov. Doc No. 133, pp 15Google Scholar
  443. Tang G, Suter PM (2011) Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella. J Pharm Nutr Sci 1:111–118Google Scholar
  444. Taoka Y, Maeda H, Jo JY (2006a) Growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to probiotics in a closed recirculating system. Fish Sci 72:310–321Google Scholar
  445. Taoka Y, Maeda H, Jo JY (2006b) Use of live and dead probiotic cells in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish Sci 72:755–766Google Scholar
  446. Tapia PA, Diaz RP, Leon RJ (2012) Use or the probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 on the culture of Senegalenses sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) and gilthead seabream (Sparaus aurata L). Aquac Int 21:1–15Google Scholar
  447. Teixeira CP, Barros MM, Pezzato LE, Fernandes AC, Albers Koch JF, Padovani CR (2012) Growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fed diets containing levels of pyridoxine and haematological response under heat stress. Aquac Res 43:1081–1088Google Scholar
  448. Tejpal CS, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Jha AK, Muthappa NA, Sagar V, Rajan MG (2009) Dietary supplementation of l-tryptophan mitigates crowding stress and augments the growth in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Aquaculture 293:272–277Google Scholar
  449. Temmerman R, Pot B, Huys G, Swings J (2003) Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from probiotic products. Int J Food Microbiol 81:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Thomas CM, Nielsen KM (2005) Mechanisms of, and barriers to, horizontal gene transfer between bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:711–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Thomas GM, Ward CH, Raymond RL, Wilson JT, Loehr RC (1992) Bioremediation. In: Leperberg J (ed) Encyclopedia of microbiology. Academic Press, London, pp 369–385Google Scholar
  452. Tingting Xu, Dan MC, Gary SS, Steven R (2013) Genetically modified whole-cell bioreporters for environmental assessment. Ecol Ind 28:125–141Google Scholar
  453. Tinh NTN, Linh ND, Wood TK, Dierckens K, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P (2007) Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio harveyi strain alters the growth rate of gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. J Appl Microbiol 103:194–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Tinh NTN, Dierckens K, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P (2008) A review of the functionality of probiotics in the larviculture food chain. Mar Biotechnol 10:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Touraki M, Gerda K, Penelope K, Karamanoli C (2012) Evaluation of the probiotics Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum bioencapsulated in Artemia nauplii against vibriosis in European sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:2425–2433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Tovar-Ramirez D, Zambonino J, Cahu C, Gatesoupe FJ, Vazquez-Juarez R, Lesel R (2002) Effect of live yeast incorporation in compound diet on digestive enzyme activity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Aquaculture 204:113–123Google Scholar
  457. Tovar-Ramirez D, Zambonino-Infante J, Cahu C, Gatesoupe JF, Vazquez-Juarez R (2004) Influence of dietary live yeast on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larval development. Aquaculture 234:415–427Google Scholar
  458. Tovar-Ramirez D, Mazurais D, Gatesoupe JF, Quazuguel P, Cahu CL, Zambonino-Infante JL (2010) Dietary probiotic live yeast modulates antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Aquaculture 300(1–4):142–147Google Scholar
  459. Trachoo N, Boudreaux C (2006) Therapeutic properties of probiotic bacteria. J Biol Sci 6:202–208Google Scholar
  460. Trogl J, Chauhan A, Ripp S, Layton AC, Kuncova G, Gary SS (2012) Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44: lessons learned from a model whole-cell bioreporter with a broad application history. Sensors 12:1544–1571PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Tucker CS, Kingsbury SK, Mischke CC (2009) Bacterial bio augmentation of channel catfish ponds. N Am J Aquac 71:315–319Google Scholar
  462. Tukmechi A, Morshedi A, Delirezh N (2007) Changes in intestinal microflora and humoral immune response following probiotics administration in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Anim Vet Adv 6(10):1183–1189Google Scholar
  463. Turnbull J, Bell A, Adams C, Bron J, Huntingford F (2005) Stocking density and welfare of cage farmed Atlantic salmon: application of a multivariate analysis. Aquaculture 243:121–132Google Scholar
  464. Uma A, Abraham TJ, Sundararaj V (1999) Effect of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum on disease resistance of Penaeus indicus larvae. Indian J Fish 46:367–373Google Scholar
  465. Uribe C, Folch H, Enriquez R, Moran G (2011) Innate and adaptive immunity in teleost fish (a review). Vet Med 56:486–503Google Scholar
  466. Vali N (2009) Probiotic in quail nutrition (a review). Int J Poultry Sci 8:1218–1222Google Scholar
  467. Vamanu E, Vamanu A (2010) Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus IL1 strain in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Int J Pharmacol 6:732–737Google Scholar
  468. Vamanu E, Vamanu A, Popa O, Vassu T, Ghindea R (2008) Effect of the yeast and bacteria biomass on the microbiota in the rumen. Pak J Biol Sci 11:2217–2223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. vander Meer JR, Belkin S (2010) Where microbiology meets microengineering: design and applications of reporter bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:511–522Google Scholar
  470. Vani T, Saharan M, Mukherjee SC, Ranjan R, Kumar R, Brahmachari RK (2011) Deltamethrin induced alterations of hematological and biochemical parameters in fingerlings of Catla catla (Ham) and their amelioration by dietary supplement of vitamin C. Pesticide Biochem Physiol 101:16–20Google Scholar
  471. Varela JL, Ruiz I, Vargas L (2010) Dietary administration of probiotic Pdp11 promotes growth and improves stress tolerance to high stocking density in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus). Aquaculture 309:265–271Google Scholar
  472. Varsamos S, Nebel C, Charmantier G (2005) Ontogeny of osmoregulation in postembryonic ¢sh: a review. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 141:401–429Google Scholar
  473. Veillette PA, Merino M, Marcaccio ND, Garcia MM, Specker JL (2007) Cortisol is necessary for seawater tolerance in larvae of a marine teleost the summer flounder. Gen Comp Endocrinol 151:116–121Google Scholar
  474. Vendrell D, Balcazar JL, Blas ID, Ruiz-Zzarzuela I, Girones O, Muzquiz JL (2008) Protection of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from lactococcosis by probiotic bacteria. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 31(4):337–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Veni T, Chelladuari G, Mohanraj J, Vijayakumar I, Petchimuthu M (2012) Dietary administration of Lactobacillus acidophillus as probiotics on health, survival and gut microbial load in cat fish (Mystus montanus). Int J Res Fish Aquac 2(4):48–51Google Scholar
  476. Venkateswara AR (2007) Bioremediation to restore the health of aquaculture. Pond Ecosystem Hyderabad 500 082, India, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  477. Verlhac V, Viswanath K (2004) Nutrition and immune modulation in aquatic animals. Aquafeed Formul Beyond 1(4):5–9Google Scholar
  478. Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W (2000) Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:655–671PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Vidhyalakshmi R, Bhakyaraj R, Subhasree RS (2009) Encapsulation “The future of probiotics” (a review). Adv Biol Res 3(3–4):96–103Google Scholar
  480. Vieira FN, Buglione CC, Mourino JPL, Jatoba A, Martins ML, Schleder DD, Andreatta ER, Barraco MA, Vinatea LA (2010) Effect of probiotic supplemented diet on marine shrimp survival after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. Braz J Vet Anim Sci 62(3):631–638Google Scholar
  481. Vignesh V, Kanipandian N, Parthiban K, Vasuki B, Nishanthini A, Thirumurugan R (2011) Evaluation of Lactobacillus sp. as a probiotic for the growth of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Int J Fish Aquac Sci 1:89–98Google Scholar
  482. Vijayabaskar P, Somasundaram ST (2008) Isolation of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria from fish gut and probiotic activity against common fresh water fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Biotechnology 7:124–128Google Scholar
  483. Vijayan KK, Bright Singh IS, Jayaprakash NS (2006) A brackishwater isolate of Pseudomonas PS-102, a potential antagonistic bacterium against pathogenic Vibrios in penaeid and non-penaeid rearing systems. Aquaculture 251(2–4):192–200Google Scholar
  484. Villamil L, Tafalla C, Figueras A, Novoa B (2002) Evaluation of immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria in turbot (Scophhalmus Maximus). J Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:1318–1323Google Scholar
  485. Vine NG, Leukes WD, Kaiser H, Daya S, Baxter J, Hecht T (2004) Competition for attachment of aquaculture candidate probiotic and pathogenic bacteria on fish intestinal mucus. J Fish Dis 27:319–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. Vine NG, Leukes WD, Horst K (2006) Probiotics in marine larviculture. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:404–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. Waché Y, Auffray F, Gatesoupe JF, Zambonino J, Gayet V, Labbé L, Quentel C (2006) Cross effects of the strain of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rearing conditions on the onset of intestinal microbiota and digestive enzymes in rainbow trout,(Onchorhynchus mykiss), fry. Aquaculture 258(1–4):470–478Google Scholar
  488. Wang YB (2007) Effect of probiotics on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 269:259–264Google Scholar
  489. Wang YB, Xu ZR (2006) Effect of probiotics for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Anim Feed Sci Technol 127:283–292Google Scholar
  490. Wang YB, Xu ZR, Xia MS (2005) The effectiveness of commercial probiotics in northern white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) ponds. Fish Sci 71:1036–1041Google Scholar
  491. Wang Y, HanY LiY, Chen J, Zhang XH (2007) Isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from diseased tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis, Gunther) in China. Chin Soc Microbiol 47:763–768Google Scholar
  492. Wang YB, Li JR, Lin J (2008) Probiotics in aquaculture: challenges and outlook. Aquaculture 281:1–4Google Scholar
  493. Wang T, Lefevere S, Huong DTH, Cong NV, Bayley M (2009) Effect of hypoxia on growth and digestion. In: Richards J, Brauner CJ, Farrel AP (eds) Fish physiology, vol 27. Hypoxia Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  494. Waters CM, Bassler BL (2005) Quorum sensing: cell to cell communication in bacteria. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 21:319–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Watson FL, Puttmann-Holgado R, Thomas F, Lamar DL, Hughes M (2005) Extensive diversity of Ig superfamily proteins in the immune system of insects. Science 309:1874–1878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Wells RMG (2009) Blood gas transport and hemoglobin functions: adaptations for functional and environmental hypoxia. Fish physiology, vol 27. Hypoxia Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  497. World Health Organization (2001) Antimicrobial resistance fact sheet 194. http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact194html
  498. Wu W, Wang L, Zhang X (2005) Identification of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope proteins involved in shrimp infection. Virology 332(2):578–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. Wu S, Wang G, Angert ER, Wang W, Li W, Zou H (2012) Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine. PLoS ONE 7:2Google Scholar
  500. Xiang-Hong W, Jun L, Wei-shang J, Huai-shu X (2003) Application of probiotics in aquaculture. Ocean University of Qungo, China, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  501. Xian-Wei W, Jin-Xing W (2013) Pattern recognition receptors acting in innate immune system of shrimp against pathogen infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34(4):981–989Google Scholar
  502. Xu J, Han F, Zhang X (2007) Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA. Antiviral Res 73(2):126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. Yair S, Yaacov D, Susan K, Jurkevitch E (2003) Small eats big: ecology and diversity of Bdellovibrio and like organisms, and their dynamics in predator-prey interactions. Agron Sustain Dev 23:433–439Google Scholar
  504. Yan I, Boyd KG, Burgess JG (2002) Surface attachment induced production of antimicrobial compounds by marine epiphytic bacteria using modified roller bottle cultivation. Mar Biotechnol 4:356–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Yassir AL, Adel ME, Azze A (2002) Use of probiology bacteria as growth promoters, antibacterial and the effect on physiological parameters of Oreochronus niroticus. J Fish Dis 25:633–642Google Scholar
  506. Yasuda K, Taga N (1980) A mass culture method for Artemia salina using bacteria as food. Mar Environ Resour 18:53–62Google Scholar
  507. Ye JD, Wang K, Li FD, Sun YZ (2011) Single or combined effects of fructo and mannan oligosaccharide supplements and Bacillus clausii on the growth, feed utilization, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, innate immune response and lipid metabolism of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquac Nutr 17:902–911Google Scholar
  508. Yeung PSM, Sanders ME, Kitts CL, Cano R, Tong PS (2002) Species-specific identification of commercial probiotic strains. J Dairy Sci 85:1039–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Youping Y, Dongdong M, Shijiang L, Zhongkang W (2011) Effects on growth and digestive enzyme activities of the Hepialus gonggaensis larvae caused by introducing probiotics. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27(3):529–533Google Scholar
  510. Yousefian M, Amiri MS (2009) Review of the use of prebiotic in aquaculture for fish and shrimp. Afr J Biotechnol 8:7313–7318Google Scholar
  511. Yun-Zhang S, Yang H, Ru-Long M, Lin W (2010) Probiotic applications of two dominant gut Bacillus strains with antagonistic activity improved the growth performance and immune responses of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:803–809Google Scholar
  512. Zai AS, Ahmad S, Rasool SA (2009) Bacteriocin production by indigenous marine catfish associated Vibrio sp. Pak J Pharmaceutical Sci 22:162–167Google Scholar
  513. Zapata AA, Lara-Flores M (2013) Antimicrobial activities of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) intestine. J Biol Life Sci 4(1)Google Scholar
  514. Zapata AG, Chiba A, Varas A (1996) Cells and tissues of the immune system of fish. In: Iwama G, Nakanishi T (eds) The fish immune system Organism, pathogen and environment. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–62Google Scholar
  515. Zhang X, Zhang W, Xue L, Zhang B, Jin M, Fu W (2010) Bioremediation of bacteria pollution using the marine sponge (Hymeniacidon perlevis) in the intensive mariculture water system of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Biotechnol Bioeng 105(1):59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Zhang Q, Tan B, Mai K, Zhang W, Ma H, Ai Q, Wang X, Liufu Z (2011) Dietary administration of Bacillus (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) and isomalto oligosaccharide influences the intestinal microflora, immunological parameters and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp, Penaeus japonicus (Decapoda: Penaeidae). Aquac Res 42:943–952Google Scholar
  517. Zhang S, Sing Y, Long M, Wei Z (2012) Does dietary administration of Lactococcus lactis modulate the gut microbiota of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). J World Aquac Soc 43(2):198–207Google Scholar
  518. Zhao Y, Mai K, Xu W, Zhang W, Ai Q, Zhang Y, Wang X, Liufu Z (2011) Influence of dietary probiotic Bacillus TC22 and prebiotic fructo oligosaccharide on growth, immune responses and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicas). J Ocean Univ China 10(3):293–300Google Scholar
  519. Zhou Q, Zhang J, Fu J, Shi J, Jiang G (2008) Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem. Anal Chim Acta 6.0 6:135–150Google Scholar
  520. Zhou XX, Wang YB, Li WF (2009) Effect of probiotic on larvae shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) based on water quality, survival rate and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture 287(3–4):349–353Google Scholar
  521. Zokaeifar H, Balcázar JL, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Arshad A, Nejat N (2012) Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune gene expression and disease resistance of white shrimp (Litopenaeu svannamei). Fish Shellfish Immunol 33:683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Zoumpopoulou G, Pepelassi E, Papaioannou W, Georgalaki M, Maragkoudakis PA, Tarantilis PA, Polissiou M, Tsakalidou E, Papadimitriou K (2013) Incidence of bacteriocins produced by food related lactic acid bacteria active towards oral pathogens. Int J Mol Sci 14(3):4640–4654PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bidhan C. De
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. K. Meena
    • 1
  • B. K. Behera
    • 1
  • Pronob Das
    • 1
    • 3
  • P. K. Das Mohapatra
    • 2
  • A. P. Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Inland Fisheries Research InstituteBarrackpore, KolkataIndia
  2. 2.Vidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia
  3. 3.Central Inland Fisheries Research Centre, Regional CentreGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations