Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 871–879

Slaughter of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the presence of carbon monoxide

  • Gry Aletta Bjørlykke
  • Bjørn Olav Kvamme
  • Arnt J. Raae
  • Bjorn Roth
  • Erik Slinde
Article

Abstract

The different stunning methods for Atlantic salmon can still be improved with regard to animal welfare. Salmon exposed to carbon monoxide expressed no aversive reactions towards CO as such. CO exposed fish showed an earlier onset of rigour mortis and a faster decrease in muscle pH due to depletion of oxygen during the treatment. Exposure to CO did increase the level of cortisol compared to undisturbed control fish, but the increase was less than in the water only control group. Neuroglobin, a CO binding globin, was found in salmon brain and Saccus vasculosus, a richly vascularized sac connected to the fish brain. Binding of CO to neuroglobin during sedation might possibly improve animal welfare.

Keywords

Animal welfare Atlantic salmon Carbon monoxide Neuroglobin Saccus vasculosus Slaughter 

References

  1. Bito M, Yamada K, Mikumo Y, Amano K (1983) Difference in the mode of rigor mortis among some varieties of fish by modified cutting’s method. Bull Tokai Reg Fish Res Lab 109:89–93Google Scholar
  2. Bjørlykke GA, Roth B, Sørheim O, Kvamme BO, Slinde E (2011) The effects of carbon monoxide on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Food Chem 127:1706–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjørndal B, Myklebust LM, Rosendal KR, Myromslien FD, Lorens JB, Noland G, Bruland O, Lillehaug JR (2006) RACK1 regulates Ki-Ras-mediated signaling and morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Int J Cancer 120:961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackmore DK (1993) Euthanasia; not always Eu. Aust Vet J 70:409–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenthal I (2001) Carbon monoxide poisoning. J R Soc Med 94:270–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunori M, Vallone B (2007) Neuroglobin, seven years after. Cell Mol Life Sci 64:1259–1268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burmester T, Hankeln T (2009) What is the function of neuroglobin? J Exp Biol 212:1423–1428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burmester T, Weich B, Reinhardt S, Hankeln T (2000) A vertebrate globin expressed in the brain. Nature 407:520–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chow CJ, Hsieh PP, Hwang MS (1998) Quantitative determination of carbon monoxide residue in tuna flesh. JFDA 6:439–446 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Dewilde S, Kiger L, Burmester T, Hankeln T, Baudin-Creuza T (2001) Biochemical characterization and ligand binding properties of neuroglobin, a novel member of the globin family. J Biol Chem 276:38949–38955CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. EFSA (2009) Species-specific welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing of farmed Atlantic salmon. EFSA J. http://www.efsa.europa.eu. Accessed 29 Nov 2011
  12. Erikson U, Hultmann L, Steen JE (2006) Live chilling of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) combined with mild carbon dioxide anaesthesia: I. Establishing a method for large-scale processing of farmed fish. Aquaculture 252:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fuchs C, Heib V, Kiger L, Haberkamp M, Roesner A, Schmidt M, Hamdane D, Marden MC, Hankeln T, Burmester T (2004) Zebrafish reveals different and conserved features of vertebrate neuroglobin gene structure, expression pattern, and ligand binding. J Biol Chem 279:24116–24122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gee DL, Brown D (1981) The effect of carbon monoxide on bacterial growth. Meat Sci 5:215–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldstein M (2008) Carbon monoxide poisoning. J Emerg Nurs 34:538–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. SJS 6:65–70Google Scholar
  17. Hsieh PP, Chow CJ, Chu YJ, Chen WW (1998) Change in color and quality of tuna during treatment with carbon monoxide gas. JFDA 6:605–613 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Kestin SC, van de Vis JW, Robb DHF (2002) Protocol for assessing brain function in fish and the effectiveness of methods used to stun and kill them. Vet Rec 150:302–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kiger L, Uzan J, Dewilde S, Burmester T, Hankeln T, Moens L, Hamdane D, Baudin-Creuza V, Marden MC (2004) Neuroglobin ligand binding kinetics. IUBMB Life 56:709–719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during assembly of head of bacteriophage-T4. Nature 227:680–685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lahiri S, Roy A, Baby SM, Hoshi T, Semenza GL, Prabhakar NR (2006) Oxygen sensing in the body. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 91:249–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu JX, Yu ZY, Guo SZ, Lee SR, Xing CH, Zhang CG, Gao Y, Nicholls DG, Lo EH, Wang XY (2009) Effects of neuroglobin overexpression on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress following hypoxia/reoxygenation in cultured neurons. J Neurosci Res 87:164–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mantilla D, Kristinsson HG, Balaban MO, Otwell WS, Chapman FA, Raghavan S (2008) Carbon monoxide treatments to impart and retain muscle color in tilapia fillets. J Food Sci 73:C390–C399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mejdell CM, Erikson U, Slinde E, Midling KØ (2010) Bedøvelsesmetoder ved slakting av laksefisk. Norsk veterinærtidsskrift 122:83–90 (in Norwegian)Google Scholar
  25. Milton LS, Nayak G, Luytz LP, Perentice MH (2006) Gene transcription of neuroglobin is upregulated by hypoxia and anoxia in the brain of the anoxia-tolerant turtle Trachemys scripta. J Biomed Sci 13:509–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mommsen TP, Vijayan MM, Moon TW (1999) Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Rev Fish Biol Fish 9:211–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. R Development Core Team (2010) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  28. Renshaw GMC, Nikinmaa M (2007) Oxygen sensors of the peripheral and central nervous system. In: Lajtha A, Johnson D (eds) Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Reuss S, Saaler-Reinhardt S, Weich B, Wystub S, Reuss MH, Burmester T, Hankeln T (2002) Expression analysis of neuroglobin mRNA in rodent tissues. Neuroscience 115:645–656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Roesner A, Hankeln T, Burmester T (2006) Hypoxia induces a complex response of globin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Exp Biol 209:2129–2137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Roesner A, Mitz SA, Hankeln T, Burmester T (2008) Globins and hypoxia adaptation in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. FEBS J 275:3633–3643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Roth B, Moeller D, Veland JO, Imsland A, Slinde E (2002) The effect of stunning methods on rigor mortis and texture properties of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J Food Sci 67:1462–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roth B, Imsland A, Moeller D (2003) Effect of electrical field strength and current duration on stunning and injuries in marked-sized atlantic salmon held in seawater. N Am J Aquac 65:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roth B, Slinde E, Robb DHF (2006) Percussive stunning of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the relation between force and stunning. Aquac Eng 36:192–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roughton FJW (1970) The equilibrium of carbon monoxide with human hemoglobin in whole blood. In: Coburn RF (ed) Biological effects of carbon monoxide. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp 177–188Google Scholar
  36. Sanson KT (1998) The saccus vasculosus in fish: a morphological study (Dr. Scient. thesis). University of Bergen, BergenGoogle Scholar
  37. Soengas JL, Aldegunde M (2002) Energy metabolism of fish brain. Comp Biochem Physiol B-Biochem Mol Biol 131:271–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sun Y, Jin K, Mao OX, Zhu Y, Greenberg AD (2001) Neuroglobin is up-regulated by and protects neurons from hypoxic-ischemic injury. Neurobiology 98:15306–15311Google Scholar
  39. Yanez J, Rodriguez M, Perez S, Adrio F, RodriguezMoldes I, Manso MJ, Anadon R (1997) The neuronal system of the saccus vasculosus of trout (Salmo trutta fario and Oncorhynchus mykiss): an immunocytochemical and nerve tracing study. Cell Tissue Res 288:497–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gry Aletta Bjørlykke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bjørn Olav Kvamme
    • 1
  • Arnt J. Raae
    • 2
  • Bjorn Roth
    • 3
  • Erik Slinde
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Marine ResearchBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  3. 3.Department of Processing TechnologyNofima ASStavangerNorway
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food ScienceNorwegian University of Life ScienceÅsNorway

Personalised recommendations