Advertisement

Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 1029–1034 | Cite as

Effects of dietary administration of Echinacea purpurea on growth indices and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings

  • Somayeh Bohlouli Oskoii
  • Ahmad Tahmasebi Kohyani
  • Ali Parseh
  • Amir Parviz Salati
  • Ehsan SadeghiEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Echinacea purpurea (EP) on growth and some hematological and blood biochemical indices of rainbow trout fingerlings. A basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g EP kg−1 to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with an initial average weight of approximately 8 g. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, fish fed diets with 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg−1 showed highest final weight and SGR and fish fed with the control diet indicated the lowest final weight and SGR. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in FCR between the control group and the groups fed with diets of 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg−1. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein content, albumin content, globulin content, and albumin/globulin ratio in the fish were evaluated. There were significant differences between hematological parameters including RBC, WBC, HB, lymphocyte, and neutrophil percentage in fish fed with dietary nucleotide compared with control treatment (P < 0.05). The results suggest that EP administration at 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg−1 exerted positive effects on growth and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout.

Keywords

Rainbow trout Echinacea purpurea Blood indices 

Notes

Acknowledgments

It is our pleasure to thank Pars Imen Daru (Tehran, Iran) for preparing alcoholic extract of EP.

References

  1. Aly SM, Mohamed MF (2010) Echinacea purpurea and Allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 94:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aly SM, John G, El-Naggar G, Mohamed F (2007) Effect of Echinacea on body gain, survival and some hematological and immunological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus and their response to challenge infection. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish 113:435–445Google Scholar
  3. Aly SM, Mohamed MF, John G (2008) Echinacea as immunostimulatory agent in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) via earthen pond experiment. 8th international symposium on Tilapia in aquacultureGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett B (2003) Medicinal properties of Echinacea: a critical review. Phytomed 10:66–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer R (1998) Echinacea: biological effects and active principles. In: Lawson LD, Bauer R (eds) Phytomedicines of Europe: chemistry and biological activity. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, p 140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer R (1999) Chemistry, analysis and immunological investigations of Echinacea phytopharmaceuticals. In: Wagner H (ed) Immunomodulatory agents from plants. Birkauser Verlag, Basel, p 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauer R, Wagner H (1991) Echinacea species as potential immunostimulatory drugs. In: Wagner H, Farnsworth NR (eds) Economic and medicinal plant research, vol 5. Academic Press Limited, London, pp 253–321Google Scholar
  8. Böhmer BM, Salisch H, Paulicks BR, Roth FX (2009) Echinacea purpurea as a potential immunostimulatory feed additive in laying hens and fattening pigs by intermittent application. Livestock Sci 122:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chow G, Johns T, Miller SC (2006) Dietary Echinacea purpurea during murine pregnancy: effect on maternal hemopoiesis and fetal growth. Biol Neonate 89:133–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cundell DR, Matrone MA, Rarjaczak P, Pierce JD (2003) The effect of aerial parts of Echinacea on the circulating white cell levels and selected immune function of the aging male Spague–Dawley rat. Intern Immunopharmacol 3:1041–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. FAO (2008) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Rome, pp 14–17Google Scholar
  12. Guz L, Sopinska A, Oniszczuk T (2011) Effect of Echinacea purpurea on growth and survival of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) challenged with Aeromonas bestiarum. Aquacult Nut 17:695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Houston AH (1990) Blood and circulation. In: Schreck CB, Moyle PB (eds) Methods in fish biology. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 273–335Google Scholar
  14. Maass N, Bauer J, Paulicks BR, Bohmer BM, Roth-Maier DA (2005) Efficiency of Echinacea purpurea on growth performance and immune status in pig. J Anim Physiol Nut 89:244–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Misra CK, Kumar DB, Mukherjee SC, Pattnaik P (2006) Effect of long term administration of dietary glucan on immunity, growth and survival of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Aquacult 255:82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Przybilla P, Wei JB (1998) Pflanzliche Futterzusatzstoffe in der Schweinemast. Die Mastleistung natürlich verbessern. DGS-Mag 40:52–57Google Scholar
  17. Rininger JA, Kickner S, Chigurupati P, McLean A, Franck Z (2000) Immunopharmacological activity of Echinacea preparations following simulated digestion on murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Leuk Biol 68:503–510Google Scholar
  18. Sakai M (1999) Current research status of fish immunostimulants. Aquacult 172:63–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sasagawa M, Cech NB, Gray DE, Elmer WG, Cynthia AW (2006) Echinacea alkylamides inhibit interleukin-2 production by jurkat T cells. Intern Immunopharmacol 6:1214–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sharma A, Deo AD, Riteshkumar T, Chanu TI, Das A (2010) Effect of Withania omnifera (L. Dunal) root as a feed additive on immunological parameters and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita. Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:508–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun LZ-Y, Currier NL, Miller SC (1999) The American coneflower: a prophylactic role involving nonspecific immunity. J Altern Complement Med 5:437–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Velisek J, Svobodova Z, Piaakova V (2005) Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Acta Vet Brno 74:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Woelkart K, Bauer R (2007) The role of alkamides as an active principle of Echinacea. Planta Med 73:615–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somayeh Bohlouli Oskoii
    • 1
  • Ahmad Tahmasebi Kohyani
    • 2
  • Ali Parseh
    • 3
  • Amir Parviz Salati
    • 4
  • Ehsan Sadeghi
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Kermanshah BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Berom Aquaculture farmLordeganIran
  3. 3.Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon BranchTonekabonIran
  4. 4.Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural ResourcesKhorramshahr University of Marine Science and TechnologyKhorramshahrIran
  5. 5.Department of Nutritional Science, Public Health SchoolKermanshah University of Medical ScienceKermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations