Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 61–83 | Cite as

Injuries and deformities in fish: their potential impacts upon aquacultural production and welfare

  • Chris NobleEmail author
  • Hernán A. Cañon Jones
  • Børge Damsgård
  • Matthew J. Flood
  • Kjell Ø. Midling
  • Ana Roque
  • Bjørn-Steinar Sæther
  • Stephanie Yue Cottee


Fish can be the recipients of numerous injuries that are potentially deleterious to aquacultural production performance and welfare. This review will employ a systematic approach that classifies injuries in relation to specific anatomical areas of the fish and will evaluate the effects of injury upon production and welfare. The selected areas include the (1) mouth, (2) eye, (3) epidermis and (4) fins. These areas cover a large number of external anatomical features that can be injured during aquacultural procedures and husbandry practices. In particular, these injuries can be diagnosed on live fish, in a farm environment. For each anatomical feature, this review addresses (a) its structure and function and (b) defines key injuries that can affect the fish from a production and a welfare perspective. Particular attention is then given to (c) defining known and potential aquacultural risk factors before (d) identifying and outlining potential short- and long-term farming practices and mitigation strategies to reduce the incidence and prevalence of these injuries. The review then concludes with an analysis of potential synergies between risk factors the type of injury, in addition to identifying potential synergies in mitigation strategies. The paper covers both aquaculture and capture-based aquaculture.


Aquaculture Deformities Fish welfare Injuries Production 



This review was carried out as part of EU COST Action 867: Welfare of fish in European aquaculture.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Noble
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hernán A. Cañon Jones
    • 2
  • Børge Damsgård
    • 1
  • Matthew J. Flood
    • 3
  • Kjell Ø. Midling
    • 1
  • Ana Roque
    • 4
  • Bjørn-Steinar Sæther
    • 1
  • Stephanie Yue Cottee
    • 5
  1. 1.Nofima, The Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture ResearchTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Medicine, Wildlife Health, Fish and Conservation Medicine GroupUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and ForestryCanberraAustralia
  4. 4.Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries-Sant Carles de la RápitaSant Carles de la RápitaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Animal and Poultry ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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