EMG telemetry studies on upstream migration of chum salmon in the Toyohira river, Hokkaido, Japan
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The movements of 28 adult chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) tagged with electromyogram (EMG) transmitters were tracked along the Toyohira river, Hokkaido, Japan, in October of 2007 and 2008 to investigate and evaluate the upstream migratory behavior through the protection bed and fishway of ground sills. The approach time of fish that ascended successfully through the protection bed and fishway was shorter than that of unsuccessful fish. The unsuccessful fish were observed to swim in currents with high water velocity and shallow water depth at swimming speeds that exceeded their critical swimming speed (U crit) during the approach to these structures. In consequence, unsuccessful fish frequently alternated between burst and maximum sustained speeds without ever ascending the fishway, and eventually became exhausted. It is important that fishway are constructed to enable chum salmon to find a passage way easily, so that they can migrate upstream rapidly without wasting excessive energy.
KeywordsGround sill Protection bed Fishway EMG telemetry Chum salmon
We thank the following for their help and cooperation: Mr. Y. Okamoto (Sapporo Salmon Museum) for providing experimental animals and Prof. K. Tsumura and Prof. K. Yano for providing the swimming chamber and facilities in Hokkaido Campus of Tokai University. This study was supported in part by a Research Fellowship for Young Scientists to Y. M. (195295) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) as well as Grant in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (18208017) from JSPS, and the Foundation of Riverfront Improvement and Restoration to H. U.
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