Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 959–967 | Cite as

Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on growth performance and plasma biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

  • Junming Deng
  • Qingcong An
  • Baoliang Bi
  • Qiuju Wang
  • Lingfu Kong
  • Linli Tao
  • Xi ZhangEmail author


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on growth performance and plasma biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Graded levels of EEP [0 (control), 1, 2, and 4 g kg−1 diet] were fed to trout juveniles (mean weight 7.73 ± 0.17 g) for 10 weeks. Dietary EEP supplementation regardless of inclusion level significantly improved the specific growth rate of fish. Similarly, supplemental EEP generally improved the feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio, but no significant differences were observed between the 1 g kg−1 EEP group and the control group. In addition, dietary EEP supplementation generally increased the plasma superoxide dismutase, lysozyme, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities, but decreased the plasma malondialdehyde level. The plasma triglycerides level was significantly lower in the 1 or 4 g kg−1 EEP group as compared with the control group. Dietary EEP supplementation generally decreased the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, but increased the hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results indicate the potential to use the EEP as a growth promoter, hepatoprotective agent, and immunostimulant for rainbow trout.


Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissEthanolic extract of propolis Growth promoter Immunostimulant 



This research was supported financially by Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (2008CD126) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (30960298).


  1. Abd-El-Rhman AMM (2009) Antagonism of Aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticu. Fish Shellfish Immun 27:454–459. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2009.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Nada SA, Khalik FA (1999) Physiological and toxicological responses in rats fed aflatoxin-contaminated diet with or without sorbent materials. Anim Feed Sci Techol 97:209–219. doi: 10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00342-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB (1993) Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of the kidney cellular system. Toxicol 81:173–179. doi: 10.1016/0300-483X(93)90010-P CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1995) Official methods of analysis of official analytical chemists international, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bankova V, Boudourova-Krasteva G, Popov S, Sforcin JM, Funari SRC (1998) Seasonal variations of the chemical composition of Brazilian propolis. Apidologie 29:361–367. doi: 10.1051/apido:19980406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banksnota AH, Tezuka Y, Kadota SH (2001) Recent progress in pharmacological research and propolis. Phytoter Res 15:561–571. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernet D, Schmidt H, Wahli T, Burkhardt-Holm P (2001) Effluent from a sewage treatment works causes changes in serum chemistry of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 48:140–147. doi: 10.1006/eesa.2000.2012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beukelman CJ, de Vries PJF, Schaafsma A, Quarles van Ufford HC, Kuenen J, Kroes BH, van den Worm E, van den Berg AJJ, Labadie RP, van Dijk H (1997) Immunomodulating properties of propolis. Pharm Pharmaco Lett 7(2):75–77Google Scholar
  9. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burdock GA (1998) Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food Chem Toxicol 36(4):347–363. doi: 10.1016/S0278-6915(97)00145-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cai JL, Tang XL, Yang LF, Su XY (2001) Propolis inactivated vaccine against infectious serositis in young ducks. Chin J Vet Sci 21:552–553 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Castro SL (2001) Propolis: biological and pharmacological activities. Therapeutic uses of this bee-product. Ann Rev Biomed Sci 3:49–83Google Scholar
  13. Cheng PC, Wong G (1996) Honey bee propolis: prospects in medicine. Bee World 77:8–15Google Scholar
  14. Chu WH (2006) Adjuvant effect of propolis on immunisation by inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila in carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Fish Shellfish Immu 21:113–117. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2005.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coz-Rakovac R, Strunjak-Perovic I, Hacmanjek M, Topic Popovic N, Lipej Z, Sostaric B (2005) Blood chemistry and histological properties of wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in the north Adriatic sea. Vet Res Comm 29:677–687. doi: 10.1007/s11259-005-3684-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cuesta A, Rodriguez A, Esteban MÁ, Meseguer J (2005) In vivo effects of propolis, a honeybee product, on gilthead seabream innate immune responses. Fish Shellfish Immu 18:71–80. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2004.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Denli M, Cankaya S, Silici S, Okan F, Uluocak AN (2005) Effect of dietary addition of Turkish propolis on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum variables of Quail (Coturnix cotrunix japonica). Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 18:848–854Google Scholar
  18. Dügenci SK, Arda N, Candan A (2003) Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. J Ethnopharmacol 88:99–106. doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00182-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Esiobu N, Armenta L, Ike J (2002) Antibiotic resistance in soil and water environments. Int J Environ Health Res 12:133–144. doi: 10.1080/09603120220129292 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hadi A, Shokr A, Alwan S (2009) Effects of aluminum on the biochemical parameters of fresh waterfish Tilapia zillii. J Sci Applica 3:33–41Google Scholar
  22. Iger Y, Abraham M (1994) The process of skin healing in experimentally wounded carp. J Fish Biol 36:421–437. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05622.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolankaya D, Selmanoglu G, Sorkun K, Salih B (2002) Protective effects of Turkish propolis on alcohol-induced serum lipid changes and liver injury in male rats. Food Chem 78:213–217. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00400-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kujumgiev A, Tsvetkova I, Serkedjieva Y, Bankova V, Christov R, Popov S (1999) Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin. J Ethnopharmacol 64:235–240. doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00131-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumazawa S, Hamaska T, Nakayama T (2004) Antioxidant activity of propolis of various geographic origins. Food Chem 84:329–339. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00216-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu B, Ge X, He Y, Xie J, Xu P, He Y, Zhou Q, Pan L, Chen R (2010) Effects of anthraquinones extracted from Rheum officinale Bail on the growth, non-specific immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 310:13–19. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu XL, Xi QY, Yang L, Li HY, Jiang QY, Shu G, Wang SB, Gao P, Zhu XT, Zhang YL (2011) The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immu 30:495–500. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2010.11.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Magnadóttir B (2006) Innate immunity of fish. Fish Shellfish Immu 20:137–151. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2004.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meurer F, de Costa MM, de Barros DAD, de Oliveira STL, da Paixão PS (2009) Brown propolis extract in feed as a growth promoter of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus 1758) fingerlings. Aquac Res 40:603–608. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.02139.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mirzoeva OK, Grishanin RN, Calder PC (1997) Antimicrobial action of propolis and some of its components: the effects on growth, membrane potential and motility of bacteria. Microbiol Res 52:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miyataka H, Nishiki M, Matsumoto H, Fujimoto T, Matsuka M, Satoh T (1997) Evaluation of propolis. I. Evaluation of Brazilian and Chinese propolis by enzymatic and phsico-chemical methods. Biolo Pharmaceu Bull 20:496–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Öner M, Atli G, Canli M (2008) Changes in serum biochemical parameters of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following prolonged metal (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn) exposures. Environ Tox Chem 27:360–366. doi: 10.1897/07-281R.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Osman AGM, Koutb M, Sayed AEH (2010) Use of hematological parameters to assess the efficiency of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf extract in alleviation of the effect of ultraviolet–A radiation on African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). J Photochem Photobio 99B:1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.01.002 Google Scholar
  34. Sawaya ACHF, Palma AM, Caetano FM, Marcucci MC, Silvacunha IB, Araujo CEP, Shimizu MT (2002) Comparative study of in vitro methods used to analyse the activity of propolis extracts with different compositions against species of Candida. Lett Appl Microbiol 35:203–207. doi: 10.1046/j.1472-765X.2002.01169.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Seo KW, Park M, Song YJ, Kim SJ, Yoon KR (2003) The protective effects of propolis on hepatic injury and its mechanism. Phytother Res 17:250–253. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1120 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Seven PT (2008) The effects of dietary Turkish propolis and vitamin C on performance, digestibility, egg production and egg quality in laying hens under different environmental temperatures. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 8:1164–1170Google Scholar
  37. Sugita H, Shibuya K, Shimooka H, Deguchi Y (1996) Antibacterial abilities of intestinal bacteria in freshwater cultured fish. Aquaculture 145:195–203. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(96)01319-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Talas ZS, Gulhan MF (2009) Effects of various propolis concentrations on biochemical and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ecotox Environ Safe 72:1994–1998. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang YF, Wang YH, Cui SJ, Wang CL (2000) Bivalent propolis-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against rabbit colibacillosis. Chin J Prev Vet Med 22:332–335. doi: 1008-0589.0.2000-05-003 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Wells R, McIntyre R, Morgan A, Davie P (1986) Physiological stress responses in big gamefish after exposure: observation on plasma chemistry and blood factors. Comp Biochem Physiol 64A:565–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yaghoubi SMJ, Ghorbani GR, Soleimanian Zad S, Satari R (2007) Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition. DARU 15:45–48. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.006 Google Scholar
  42. Young A, Morris PC, Huntingford FA, Sinnot R (2005) The effects of diet, feeding regime and catch-up growth on flesh quality attributes of large (1 + sea winter) Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture 248:59–73. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang G, Gong S, Yu D, Yuan H (2009) Propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish Shellfish Immu 3(26):467–472. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2009.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junming Deng
    • 1
  • Qingcong An
    • 1
  • Baoliang Bi
    • 1
  • Qiuju Wang
    • 1
  • Lingfu Kong
    • 1
  • Linli Tao
    • 1
  • Xi Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Animal Science and TechnologyYunnan Agricultural UniversityKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations