Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 681–692 | Cite as

Influence of increased environmental water salinity on gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus

  • Nirmalendu Saha
  • Lucy M. Jyrwa
  • Manas Das
  • Kuheli Biswas


The present study was aimed at determining the effect of hypertonicity due to increased environmental water salinity on gluconeogenesis in air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). In situ exposure to hypertonic saline solution (150 mM NaCl) led to a significant stimulation of glucose efflux due to gluconeogenesis from the liver after 7 days with further elevation after 14 days in the presence of each of the three potential gluconeogenic substrates (lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate). This was accompanied by significant increase of activities of three key gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), fructose 1,6-biphosphatase (FBPase), and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver and kidney by about twofold to threefold. Environmental hypertonicity also led to a significant elevation in the levels of PEPCK, FBPase, and G6Pase enzyme proteins in both the tissues by about 2- to 2.75-fold, accompanied by a significant elevation in the level of PEPCK mRNA by about 2- to 2.5-fold after 7 days, and further enhancement to about 3.5- to 4-fold after 14 days. Thus, the upregulation of PEPCK, FBPase. and G6Pase activities appears to be a result of transcriptional regulation of these genes. The induction of gluconeogenesis under environmental hypertonicity, which this catfish faces regularly in its natural habitat, possibly occurs as a consequence of changes in hydration status/cell volume of different cell types. This would certainly assist in maintaining glucose homeostasis, and also for a proper energy supply to support metabolic demands for ion transport and other altered metabolic processes under various environmental hypertonic stress-related insults.


Hypertonic stress Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase Fructose 1, 6-biphosphatase Glucose 6-phosphatase Hydration status Gluconeogenesis Clarias batrachus 



This study was supported by the DSA programme to the Department of Zoology and the UPE-Biosciences project to the North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi. The financial support as a research fellowship to LMJ from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nirmalendu Saha
    • 1
  • Lucy M. Jyrwa
    • 1
  • Manas Das
    • 1
  • Kuheli Biswas
    • 1
  1. 1.Biochemical Adaptation Lab., Department of ZoologyNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia

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