Low levels of cadmium exposure induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in the liver of Oujiang colored common carp Cyprinus carpio var. color
- 394 Downloads
Cadmium (Cd) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. In China, the Oujiang color common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. color, is a very important fish, from an economic point of view, and is well used for fish culture in paddy fields. The purpose of this study was to show the low concentrations of cadmium-induced oxidative stress response and DNA damage in the livers of Cyprinus carpio var. color. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) in liver were measured after exposure to Cd levels (0.41, 0.52, 0.69, 1.03 and 2.06 mg/L, respectively) for 7 days and compared with the control groups. DNA damage, including indicators of damage percentage, DNA tail length (TL) and DNA tail moment (TM) were also analyzed by comet assays. Results showed that MDA and GSH levels in all treatment groups increased significantly relative to the controls (P < 0.01). Treatment with Cd at concentration of 0.41 mg/L increased SOD activity, while treatment with Cd at concentrations >0.41 mg/L inhibited SOD activities. DNA damage percentage, TL and TM also significantly increased when the Cd level was >0.41 mg/L. Positive correlations were also found between DNA damage levels and MDA levels (r = 0.74 for DNA damage percentage, r = 0.83 for TL, r = 0.84 for TM; P < 0.01 for all) as well as between GSH and MDA levels (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). These results strongly suggested that Cd-induced DNA damage in the livers of Cyprinus carpio var. color was due to lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.
KeywordsCadmium DNA damage Oxidative stress Cyprinus carpio var. color
This work was mainly supported by the “131” Talents Foundation of Hangzhou Government in China and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. Y5090190).
- Chang M, Wang WN, Wang Al, Tian TT, Wang P, Zheng Y, Liu Y (2009) Effects of cadmium on respiratory burst, intracellular Ca2+ and DNA damage in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Comp Biochem Physiol C 149:581–586Google Scholar
- Gagne F, Blaise C, Bermigham N (1996) Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on rainbow trout hepatocytes. Toxicology 15:303–310Google Scholar
- Ranaldi MM, Gagnon MM (2009) Accumulation of cadmium in the otoliths and tissues of juvenile pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster) following dietary and waterborne exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol C 150:421–427Google Scholar
- Shi H, Sui Y, Wang X, Luo Y, Ji LL (2005) Hydroxyl radical production and oxidative damage induced by cadmium and naphthalene in liver of Carassius auratus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 140:115–121Google Scholar
- Wren CD, Harris S, Harttrup N (1995) Ecotoxicology of mercury and cadmium. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton GA Jr, Cairns J Jr (eds) Handbook of ecotoxicology. Lewis Publ, Boca Raton, Fl, pp 392–423Google Scholar