The growth hormone-encoding gene isolated and characterized from Labeo rohita Hamilton is expressed in CHO cells under the control of constitutive promoters in ‘autotransgene’ constructs

  • R. Rajesh
  • K. C. MajumdarEmail author


The growth hormone (GH) gene along with its regulatory sequences has been isolated from the blood and pituitary gland of Labeo rohita. This GH gene is approximately 2.8 kb long and consists of five exons and four introns of varying sizes with AG/TA in its exon–intron junctions. The promoter has a single cyclic AMP response unit (CRE) element, TATA, CAT and several Pit 1 binding sequences. The 1169-bp gene transcript starts 54 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon and has two polyadenylation signals, ATTAAA, after the TAG stop codon. The mature mRNA has the poly (A) tail inserted 16 bp downstream of the second polyadenylation signal. Four chimeric ‘autotransgenes’ were constructed having either histone 3 or β-actin promoter and cDNA or the total GH gene. The functionality of the individual components of the autotransgene was determined in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by transfection experiments. Based on the results, the transcription of the GH gene is initiated at the transcription start signal of the respective promoters and terminates at the 3′ regulatory sequence of the GH gene. Expression of GH in CHO cells shows that the fish promoters are active, the splicing signal is recognized, and the mRNA produced is stable and translated. The GH protein produced is effectively translocated and secreted into the medium. These results indicate the usefulness of CHO cells in determining the property of individual components of autotransgenes constructed from L. rohita and overall functional commonality between fish and mammal.


Autotransgene CHO cells Growth hormone gene Heterologous expression Labeo rohita 



We are indebted to Dr. L. Singh, Director, CCMB for his constant support; Dr. S.K. Rath for the initial experiments on library construction and screening; Dr. B. Venkatesh, Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Singapore for providing GH cDNA of goldfish; Dr. Shashi Singh and Mr. Parthasarathy for CHO cell transfection; Dr. K. Uma Devi for correcting; Mr. M. Ranga Rao for typing the manuscript. Thanks are due to two anonymous reviewers for their suggestions. Financial support by the University Grants Commission and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India for a fellowship to RR and the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for a grant (BT/AA/03/70(A)/94) to KCM is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Agellon LB, Davies SL, Chen TT, Powers DA (1988) Structure of fish (rainbow trout) growth hormone gene and its evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:5136–5140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allendorf FW, Thorgaard GH (1984) Tetraploidy and evolution of salmonid fishes. In: Turner BJ (ed) The evolutionary genetics of fishes. Plenum, New York, pp 1–53Google Scholar
  3. Almuly R, Cavari B, Ferstman H, Kolodney O, Funkenstein B (2000) Genomic structure and sequence of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) growth hormone encoding gene: identification of minisatellite polymorphism in intron I. Genome 43:836–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almuly R, Poleg-Danin Y, Gorshkov S, Gorshkova G, Rapoport B, Soller M, Kashi Y, Funkenstein B (2005) Characterization of the 5′ flanking region of the growth hormone gene of the marine teleost, gilthead seabream Sparus aurata: analysis of a polymorphic microsatellite in the proximal promoter. Fish Sci 71:479–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen DC, Krummen L (2002) Recombinant expression for therapeutic applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13:117–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argenton F, Bernardini S, Puttini S, Colombo L, Bortolussi M (1996) A TGACG motif mediates growth-hormone-factor-1/pituitary-transcriptional-activator-1-dependent cAMP regulation of rainbow trout growth hormone promoter. Eur J Biochem 238:591–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Argenton F, Vianello S, Bernardini S, Lopreiato R, Colombo L, Bortolussi M (2002) Trout GH promoter analysis reveals a modular pattern of regulation consistent with the diversification of GH gene control and function in vertebrates. Mol Cell Endocrin 189:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes LM, Bentley CM, Dickson AJ (2003) Stability of protein production from mammalian cells. Biotechnol Bioeng 81:631–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrera-Saldana H-A (1998) Growth hormone and placental lactogen: biology medicine and biotechnology. Gene 211:11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beardmore JA (1997) Transgenics: autotransgenics and allotransgenics. Transgenic Res 6:107–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beardmore J, Porter JS (2003) Genetically modified organisms and aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 989. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  12. Ber R, Daniel V (1992) Structure and sequence of the growth hormone encoding gene from Tilapia nilotica. Gene 113:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ber R, Daniel V (1993) Sequence analysis suggests a recent duplication of growth hormone encoding gene in Tilapia nilotica. Gene 125:143–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernardini SM, Argenton F, Vianello SM, Colombo LM, Borolussi MM (1999) Regulatory regions in the promoter and third intron of growth hormone gene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum. Gen Comp Endocrinol 116:261–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brinster RL, Allen JM, Behringer RR, Gelinas RE, Palmiter RD (1988) Introns increase transcriptional efficiency in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:836–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bucher P (1990) Weight matrix description of four eukaryotic RNA polymerase II promoter elements derived from 502 unrelated promoter sequences. J Mol Biol 212:563–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan KW, Devlin RH (1993) Polymerase chain reaction amplification and functional characterization of sockeye salmon histone H3, metallothionein-B, and protamine promoters. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 2:308–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chan YH, Cheng CHK, Chan KM (2003) Recombinant gold fish growth hormones (gfGH-I and II) expressed in Escherichia coli have similar biological activities. Comp Biochem Physiol A 135:613–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chao S, Pan F, Chang W (1989) Purification of carp growth hormone and cloning of the complementary DNA. Biochim Biophys Acta 1007:233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen Y-H, Thompson EB (1980) Genomic organization of rat prolactin and growth hormone genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:4583–4587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen TT, Lin CM, Dunham RA, Powers DA (1992) Integration, expression and inheritance of foreign fish growth hormone gene in transgenic fish. In: Hew CL, Fletcher GL (eds) Transgenic fish. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 164–175Google Scholar
  22. Chen TT, Kight K, Lin CM, Powers DA, Hayat M, Chatakondi N, Ramboux AC, Duncan PL, Dunham RA (1993) Expression and inheritance of RSVLTR-rtGH1 complementary DNA in the transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 2:88–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen WY, Chen NY, Yun J, Wagner TE, Kopchick JJ (1994) In vitro and in vivo studies of antagonistic effects of human growth hormone analogs. J Biol Chem 269:15892–15897. Erratum in: J Biol Chem 269:20806Google Scholar
  24. Chiou CS, Chen H-T, Chang W-C (1990) The complete nucleotide sequence of the growth hormone gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Biochim Biophys Acta 1087:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Claveau D, Riendeau D, Mancini JA (2000) Expression, maturation and rhodamine-based fluorescence assay of human Cathepsin K expressed in CHO cells. Biochem Pharmacol 60:759–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Connor W, States JC, Mezquita J, Dixon GH (1984) Organization and nucleotide sequence of rainbow trout H2A and H3 genes. J Mol Evol 20:236–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crenshaw EB, Kalla K, Simmons DM, Swanson LW, Rosenfeld MG (1989) Cell-specific expression of the prolactin gene in transgenic mice is controlled by synergistic interactions between promoter and enhancer elements. Genes Dev 3:959–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. David L, Blum S, Feldman MW, Lavi U, Hillel J (2003) Recent duplication of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) genome as revealed by analyses of microsatellite loci. Mol Biol Evol 20:1425–1434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Devlin RH (1993) Sequence of sockeye salmon type 1 and 2 growth hormone genes and the relationship of rainbow trout with Atlantic and Pacific salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:1738–1748Google Scholar
  30. Devlin RH, Yesaki TY, Biagi CA, Donaldson EM, Swanson P, Chan W-K (1994) Extraordinary salmon growth. Nature 371:209–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Devlin RH, Yesaki TY, Donaldson EM, Du SJ, Hew CL (1995) Production of germ line transgenic Pacific salmonids with dramatically increased growth performance. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:1376–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Devlin RH, Biagi CA, Yesaki TY (2004) Growth, viability and genetic characteristics of GH transgenic coho salmon strains. Aquaculture 236:607–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Du SJ, Gong Z, Hew CL, Tan CH, Fletcher GL (1992a) Development of an all-fish gene cassette for gene transfer in aquaculture. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1:290–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Du SJ, Gong Z, Fletcher GL, Shears MA, King MJ, Idler DR, Hew CL (1992b) Growth enhancement in transgenic Atlantic salmon by the use of an “all fish” chimeric growth hormone gene construct. Bio/Technology 10:176–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Du SJ, Devlin RH, Hew CL (1993) Genomic structure of growth hormone gene in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): presence of two functional genes GH1 and GH2 and a male specific pseudogene, GH ψ. DNA Cell Biol 12:739–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunham RA, Ramboux AC, Duncan PL, Hayat M, Chen TT, Lin CM, Kight K, Gonzalez-Villasenor LI, Powers DA (1992) Transfer expression and inheritance of salmonid growth hormone genes in channel cat fish, Ictalurus punctatus and effect on performance traits. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1:380–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Edwalds-Gilbert G, Veraldi KL, Milcarek C (1997) Alternative poly (A) site selection in complex transcription units: means to an end? Nucleic Acids Res 25:2547–2561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B (1983) A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. Anal Biochem 132:6–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fine M, Sakal E, Vashdi D, Daniel V, Lavanon A, Lipshitz O, Gertler A (1993) Recombinant carp growth hormone (Cyprinus carpio): expression, purification and determination of biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Gen Comp Endocrin 89:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fox SR, Jong MTC, Casanova J, Ye SF, Stanley F, Samuels HH (1990) The homeodomain protein, Pit-1/GHF-1 is capable of binding to and activating cell-specific elements of both the growth hormone and prolactin gene promoters. Mol Endocrinol 4:1069–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedenreich H, Schartl M (1990) Transient expression directed by homologous and heterologous promoter and enhancer sequences in fish cells. Nucleic Acids Res 18:3299–3305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fu C, Hu Y, Wang Y, Zhu Z (2005) Developments in transgenic fish in the people’s Republic of China. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 24:299–307Google Scholar
  43. García del Barco D, Martínez R, Hernández O, Lleonart R, De la Fuente J (1994) Differences in transient expression directed by heterologous promoter and enhancer sequences in fish cells and embryos. J Mar Biotechnol 1:203–205Google Scholar
  44. Gentry LE, Webb NR, Lim GJ, Brunner AM, Ranchalis JE, Twardzik DR, Lioubin MN, Marquardt H, Purchio AF (1987) Type 1 transforming growth factor beta: amplified expression and secretion of mature and precursor polypeptides in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mol Cell Biol 7:3418–3427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gong ZY, Vielkind JR, Hew CL (1991) Functional analysis of promotor regions from fish antifreeze protein genes in transgenic Japanese medaka embryos. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1:64–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Graham DE, Rechler MM, Brown AL, Frunzio R, Romanus JA, Bruni CB, Whitfield HJ, Nissley SP, Seeling S, Berry S (1986) Coordinate developmental regulation of high and low molecular weight mRNAs for rat insulin-like growth factor II. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4519–4523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grosveld F, van Assendelft GB, Greaves DR, Kollas G (1987) Position-independent, high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice. Cell 24:975–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guyomard R, Chourrout D, Houdebin L (1989) Production of stable transgenic fish by cytoplasmic injection of purified genes. In: Beaudet AL, Mulligan R, Verma IM (eds) Gene transfer and gene therapy. Liss, New York, pp 9–18Google Scholar
  49. Hallerman EM, Kapuscinski AR (1995) Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies of genetically modified finfish and shellfish. Aquaculture 137:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hanley S, Smith TJ, Muller F, Maclean N, Uzbekova S, Prunet P, Breton B (1998) Isolation and functional analysis of the histone (H3) promoter from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 7:165–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hepler JE, Van Wyk JJ, Lund PK (1990) Different half-lives of insulin-like growth factor I mRNAs that differ in length of 3′ untranslated sequence. Endocrinology 127:1550–1552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ho WK, Tsang WH, Dias N (1989) Cloning of the grass carp growth hormone cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 161:1239–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ho WK, Wong MW, Chan AP (1991) Cloning and sequencing of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone gene. Biochim Biophys Acta 1090:245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hong Y, Schartl M, (1993) Sequence of growth hormone (GH) from silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) and evolution of GH genes in vertebrates. Biochim Biophys Acta 1174:285–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ingraham HA, Chen R, Mangalam HJ, Selsholtz HP, Flyn SE, Lin CR, Simmons DM, Swanson L, Rosenfeld MG (1988) A tissue-specific transcription factor containing a homeo domain specifies a pituitary phenotype. Cell 55:519–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ingraham HA, Flynn SE, Albert VR, Kapiloff MS, Wilson L, Rosenfeld MG (1990) The POU-specific domain of Pit-1 is essential for sequence-specific, high affinity DNA binding and DNA-independent Pit-1-Pit-1 interactions. Cell 61:1021–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Israel DI, Nove J, Kerns KM, Moutsatsos IK, Kaufman RJ (1992) Expression and characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Growth Factors 7:139–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jackson RJ, Standart N (1990) Do the poly (A) tail and 3’ untranslated region control mRNA translation? Cell 62:15–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jhingran VG (1975) Fish and fisheries of India. Hindustan Publ, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  60. Johansen B, Johnsen OC, Valla S (1989) The complete nucleotide sequence of growth hormone gene from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Gene 77:317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kapuscinski AR (2005) Current scientific understanding of the environmental biosafety of transgenic fish and shellfish. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 24:309–322Google Scholar
  62. Koren Y, Sarid S, Ber R, Daniel V (1989) Carp growth hormone: molecular cloning and sequencing of cDNA. Gene 77:309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kozak M (1987) Analyasis of 5′ non-coding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res 15:8125–8148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kozak M (1991) Structural features in eukaryotic mRNAs that modulate the initiation of translation. J Biol Chem 266:19867–19870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lao H, Bai J, Ye X, Li Y, Lou J (2001) Molecular clone of Megalobrama hoffmanni GH cDNA. Unpublished. Gene bank accession #AF332563Google Scholar
  66. Larhammar D, Risinger C (1994) Molecular genetic aspects of tetraploidy in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Mol Phylogenet Evol 3:59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Law MS, Cheng KW, Fung TK, Chan YH, Yu KL, Chan KM (1996) Isolation and characterization of two distinct growth hormone cDNAs from the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Arch Biochem Biophys 330:19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Levy JA, Marins LF, Sanchez A (2000) Gene transfer technology in aquaculture. Hydrobiologia 420:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis UJ, Singh RNP, Tutwiller GF, Sigel MB, Vanderlaan EF, Vanderlaan WP (1980) Human growth hormone: a complex of proteins. Rec Progr Horm Res 36:477–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lin C, Lin SC, Chang CP, Rosenfeld MG (1992) Pit-1 dependent expression of the receptor for growth hormone releasing factor mediates pituitary cell growth. Nature 360:765–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lira SA, Crenshaw EB, Glass CK, Swanson LW, Rosenfeld MG (1988) Identification of rat growth hormone genomic sequences targeting pituitary expression in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:4755–4759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu Z, Zhu Z, Roberg K, Faras AJ, Guise K, Kapuscinski A, Hackett PB (1989) The β-actin gene of carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Nuleic Acids Res 7:5850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu Z, Moav B, Faras AJ, Guise KS, Kapuscinski A, Hackett PB (1990) Functional analysis of elements affecting expression of the β-actin gene of carp. Mol Cell Biol 10:3432–3440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Logan JS, Falck-Pedersen E, Darnell JE, Shenk T (1987) A poly (A) addition site and a downstream termination region are required for efficient cessation of transcription by RNA polymerase II in the mouse major beta-globin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:8306–8310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lucas BK, Giere LM, DeMarco RA, Shen A, Chisholm V, Crowley CW (1996) High-level production of recombinant proteins in CHO cells using a dicistronic DHFR intron expression vector. Nucleic Acids Res 24:1774–1779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Maclean N, Laight RJ (2000) Transgenic fish: an evaluation of benefits and risks. Fish Fisheries 1:146–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mahapatra KD, Meher PK, Saha JN, Gjerde B, Reddy PVGK, Jana RK, Sahoo M, Rye M (2000) Selection response of rohu, Labeo rohita, for two generations of selective breeding (abstract). In: Fifth Indian Fisheries Forum, CIFA, BhubaneshwarGoogle Scholar
  78. Majumdar KC, McAndrew BJ (1986) Relative DNA content of somatic nuclei and chromosomal studies in three genera, Tilapia. Sarotherodon and Oreochromis of the tribe Tilapinii (Pisces, Cichlidae). Genetica 68:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Majumdar KC, Ravinder K, Nasaruddin K (1997) DNA fingerprinting in Indian major carps and tilapia by Bkm 2 (8) and M 13 probes. Aquacult Res 28:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Male R, Nerland AH, Lorens JB, Telle W, Lossius I, Totland GK (1992) The complete nucleotide sequence of the Atlantic salmon growth hormone I gene. Biochim Biophys Acta 1130:345–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Marchioli CC, Yancey RJ Jr, Petrovskis EA, Timmins JG, Post LE (1987) Evaluation of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gp50 as a vaccine for Aujeszky’s disease in mice and swine: expression by vaccinia virus and Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Virol 61:3977–3982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Marshall RD (1972) Glycoproteins. Ann Rev Biochem 41:673–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Martinez R, Estrada MP, Berlanga J, Guillen I, Hernandez O, Cabera E, Pimentel R, Morales R, Herrera F, Morales A, Pina JC, Abad Z, Sanchez V, Melamed P, Lleonart R, de la Funte J (1996) Growth enhancement in transgenic tilapia by ectopic expression of tilapia growth hormone. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 5:62–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. McAndrew BJ, Majumdar KC (1983) Tilapia stock identification using electrophoretic markers. Aquaculture 30:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Morgan JG, Courtois G, Fourel G, Chodosh LA, Campbell L, Evans E, Crabtree GR (1988) Sp1, a CAAT-binding factor, and the adenovirus major late promoter transcription factor interact with functional regions of the gamma-fibrinogen promoter. Mol Cell Biol 8:2628–2637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Muir WM (2004) The threats and benefits of GM fish. EMBO Rep 5:654–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Muir WM, Howard RD (2001) Fitness components and ecological risk of transgenic release: a model using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Am Nat 158:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Muller F, Williams DW, Kobolak J, Gauvry L, Goldspink G, Orban L, Maclean N (1997) Activator effect of coinjected enhancers on the muscle-specific expression of promoters in zebrafish embryos. Mol Reprod Dev 47:404–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nam YK, Noh JK, Cho YS, Cho HJ, Cho K-N, Kim CG, Kim DS (2001) Dramatically accelerated growth and extraordinary gigantism of transgenic mud loach, Mizgurnus mizolepis. Transgenic Res 10:353–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nelson C, Albert VR, Elsholtz HP, Lu LI-W, Rosenfeld MG (1988) Activation of cell-specific expression of rat growth hormone and prolactin genes by a common transcription factor. Science 239:1400–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nicoll CS, Steiny SS, King DS, Nishioka RS, Mayer GL, Eberhardt NL, Baxter JD, Yamanaka MK, Miller JA, Seilhamer JJ, Schilling JM, Johnson LK (1987) The primary structure of coho salmon growth hormone and its cDNA. Gen Comp Endocrinol 68:387–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Noh JK, Cho K-N, Han EH, Kim A, Lee J-S, Kim DS, Kim CG (2003) Genomic cloning of mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae) β-actin gene and usefulness of its promoter region for fish transgenesis. Mar Biotechnol 5:244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ohkubo T, Araki M, Tanaka M, Sudo S, Nakashima K (1996) Molecular cloning and characterization of the yellowtail GH gene and its promoter: a consensus sequence for teleost and avian Pit-1/GHF-1 binding sites. J Mol Endocrinol 16:63–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ohno S (1970) Evolution by gene duplication. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Ohno S, Wolf U, Atkin NB (1968) Evolution from fish to mammals by gene duplication. Hereditas 59:169–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Paladini AC, Pena C, Edgardo E (1983) Molecular biology of growth hormone. CRC Crit Rev Biochem 15:25–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Palmiter RD, Brinster RL, Hammer RE, Trumbauer ME, Rosenfeld MG, Brinberg NC, Evance RM (1982) Dramatic growth of mice that develop from eggs microinjected with metallothionein-growth hormone fusion genes. Nature 300:611–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pandian TJ, Marian LA (1994) Problems and prospects of transgenic fish production. Curr Sci 66:635–649Google Scholar
  99. Park JH, Kim C, Kim WB, Kim YK, Lee SY, Yang JM (2000) Efficiency of promoter and cell line in high-level expression of erythropoietin. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 32:167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patikoglou GA, Kim JL, Sun L, Yang SH, Kodadek T, Burley SK (1999) TATA element recognition by the TATA box-binding protein has been conserved throughout evolution. Genes Dev 13:3217–3230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Peer YV, Yaylor JS, Meyer A (2003) Are all fishes ancient polyploids? J Struct Funct Genomics 2:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Penman DJ, Iyengar A, Beeching AJ, Rahman A, Sulaiman Z, Maclean N (1991) Patterns of transgene inheritance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Mol Reprod Dev 30:201–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Peyush P, Moriyama S, Takahashi A, Kawauchi H (2000) Molecular cloning of Growth hormone complementary DNA in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). Mar Biotechnol 2:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pitkanen TI, Krasnov A, Teerijoki H, Molsa H (1999) Transfer of growth hormone (GH) transgenes into Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) I. Growth response to various GH constructs. Genetic Anal 15:91–98Google Scholar
  105. Proudfoot NJ (1991) Poly (A) signals. Cell 64:671–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG (1976) 3′ Non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA. Nature 263:211–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rahman MA, Hwang GL, Razak SA, Sohm F, Maclean N (2000) Copy number related transgene expression and mosaic somatic expression in hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Transgenic Res 9:417–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rasmussen RS, Morrissey MT (2007) Biotechnology in aquaculture: transgenic and polyploidy. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safe 6:2–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ravinder K, Nasaruddin K, Majumdar KC, Shivaji S (1997) Computerized analysis of motility, motility patterns and motility parameters of spermatozoa of carp following short-term storage of semen. J Fish Biol 50:1309–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Reddy PVGK, Gjerde B, Tripathi SD, Jana RK, Mahapatra KD, Gupta SD, Saha JN, Sahoo M, Lenka S, Govindassamy P, Rye M, Gjedrem T (2002) Growth and survival of six stocks of rohu, Labeo rohita Hamilton in mono and polyculture production systems. Aquaculture 203:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rentier-Delrue F, Swennen D, Mercier L, Lion M, Benrubi O, Martial JA (1989a) Molecular cloning and characterization of two forms of trout growth hormone cDNA: expression and secretion of tGH-II by Escherichia coli. DNA 8:109–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rentier-Delrue F, Swennen D, Philippart JC, L’Hoir C, Lion M, Benrubi O, Martial JA (1989b) Tilapia growth hormone: molecular cloning of cDNA and expression in Escherichia coli. DNA 8:271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Roychoudhury R, Jay E, Wu R (1976) Terminal labeling and addition of homopolymer tracts to duplex DNA fragments by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Nucleic Acids Res 3:101–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning—a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring HarborGoogle Scholar
  115. Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:5463–5467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Scully KM, Jacobson EM, Jepsen K, Lunyak V, Viadiu H, Carriere C, Rose DW, Hooshmand F, Aggarwal AK, Rosenfeld MG (2000) Allosteric effects of Pit 1 DNA sites on long-term repression in cell type specification. Science 290:1127–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sekkali B, Brim H, Muller M, Argenton F, Bortolussi M, Colombo L, Belayew A, Martial JA (1999) Structure and functional analysis of a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) growth hormone gene: activation and repression by pituitary transcription factor Pit 1. DNA Cell Biol 18:489–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sekine S, Mizukami T, Nishi T, Kuwana Y, Saito A, Sato M, Itoh S, Kawauchi H (1985) Cloning and expression of cDNA for salmon growth hormone in E. coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:4306–4310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sekine S, Mizukami T, Saito A, Kawauchi H, Itoh S (1989) Isolation and characterization of a novel growth hormone cDNA from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). Biochim Biophys Acta 1009:117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Shears MA, Fletcher GL, Hew CL, Gauthier S, Davies PL (1991) Transfer, expression and stable inheritance of antifreeze protein genes in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1:58–63Google Scholar
  121. Southern EM (1975) Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol 98:503–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Spellman MW, Leonard CK, Basa LJ, Gelineo I, Halbeek H (1991) Carbohydrate structures of recombinant soluble human CD4 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochemistry 30:2395–2406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Takagi S, Sasado T, Tamiya G, Ozato K, Wakamatsu Y, Takeshita A, Kimura M (1994) An efficient expression vector for transgenic medaka construction. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 3:192–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Tanaka M, Toma Y, Ohkubo T, Sudo S, Nakashima K (1995) Sequence of the flounder growth hormone encoding gene and its promoter region. Gene 165:321–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tang Y, Lin CM, Chen TT, Kawauchi H, Dunham RA, Powers DA (1993) Structure of channel cat fish (Ictalurus punctatus) growth hormone gene and its evolutionary implications. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 2:198–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Uyeno T, Smith GR (1972) Tetraploid origin of the karyotype of catostomid fishes. Science 175:644–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Venkatesh B, Brenner S (1997) Genomic structure and sequence of the puffer fish (Fugu rubripes) growth hormone-encoding gene: a comparative analysis of teleost growth hormone genes. Gene 187:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Venugopal T, Anathy V, Pandian TJ, Gong GZ, Mathavan S (2002a) Molecular cloning of growth hormone-encoding cDNA of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, and its expression in Escherichia coli and Zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol 125:236–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Venugopal T, Mathavan S, Pandian TJ (2002b) Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian major carps by a modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy. J Biosci 27:261–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Warner TG (1999) Enhancing therapeutic glycoprotein production in Chinese hamster ovary cells by metabolic engineering endogenous gene control with antisense DNA and gene targeting. Glycobiology 9:841–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wang R, Zhang P, Gong Z, Hew CL (1995) Expression of the antifreeze protein gene in transgenic goldfish (Carassius auratus) and its implication in cold adaptation. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 4:20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Watahiki M, Yamamoto M, Yamakawa M, Tanala M, Nakashima K (1989) Conserved and unique amino acid residues in the domains of the growth hormones. J Biol Chem 264:312–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Watanabe K, Igarashi A, Noso T, Chen TT, Dunham RA, Kawauchi H (1992) Chemical identification of catfish growth hormone and prolactin. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1:239–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Webster J, Donofrio G, Wallace R, Clark AJ, Whitelaw CB (1997) Intronic sequences modulate the sensitivity of beta-lactoglobulin transgenes to position effects. Gene 193:239–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Whitelaw CB, Archibald AL, Harris S, McClenaghan M, Simons JP, Clark AJ (1991) Targeting expression to the mammary gland: intronic sequences can enhance the efficiency of gene expression in transgenic mice. Transgenic Res 1:3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Williams DW, Muller F, Lavender FL, Orban L, Maclean N (1996) High transgene activity in the yolk syncytial layer affects quantitative transient expression assays in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Transgenic Res 5:433–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Winkler C, Vielkind JR, Schartl M (1991) Transient expression of foreign DNA during embryonic and larval development of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Mol Gen Genet 226:129–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wu G, Sun Y, Zhu Z (2003) Growth hormone gene transfer in common carp. Aquat Living Resour 16:416–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yamada S, Hata J, Yamashita S (1993) Molecular cloning of fish Pit-1 cDNA and its functional binding to promoter of gene expressed in the pituitary. J Biol Chem 268:24361–24366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Yang BY, Greene M, Chen TT (1999) Early embryonic expression of the growth hormone family protein genes in the developing rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Mol Reprod Dev 53:127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yowe DL, Epping RJ (1995) Cloning of the barramundi growth hormone-encoding gene: a comparative analysis of higher and lower vertebrate GH genes. Gene 162:255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zhang P, Hayat M, Joyce C, Gonzalez-Villasenor LI, Lin CM, Dunham RA, Chen TT, Powers DA (1990) Gene transfer, expression and inheritance of pRSV-rainbow trout-GH cDNA in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). Mol Reprod Dev 25:3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Zhu Z, Li G, He L, Chen S (1985) Novel gene transfer into the fertilized eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. 1758). Z Angew Ichthyol 1:31–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Cellular and Molecular BiologyHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations