Hematology and stress physiology of juvenile diploid and triploid shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

Article

Abstract

This study examined diploid and triploid shortnose sturgeon hematology and stress physiology through the investigation of various characteristics and components of whole blood and blood plasma. Erythrocytic cellular and nuclear length and width were significantly larger in triploids than in diploids. Hematocrit was depressed in triploid sturgeon in comparison to diploids, but total blood hemoglobin content and mean erythrocytic hemoglobin concentration (MEHC) did not differ between ploidies. The mean erythrocytic hemoglobin (MEH) was elevated in proportion to the increase in erythrocyte size. Taken together, these data suggest that triploids and diploids likely have similar oxygen carrying and aerobic capacities. In response to an acute stressor of 15 min chasing, plasma cortisol and glucose levels did not differ between ploidies. Cortisol levels were significantly depressed at 2 h post-stress with an increase back to 0 h post-stress levels at 6 h into recovery, whereas glucose levels did not change during the recovery period. There was a significant interaction between ploidy and time post-stress for blood hemoglobin concentrations, with diploids demonstrating elevated hemoglobin content at 6 h post-stress. Plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentrations and lactate levels were elevated in triploids. Overall, it does not appear that sturgeon have developed an elaborate stress response and the triploid stress response appears to be slightly reduced in comparison to diploids.

Keywords

cortisol forced exercise hematology lactate osmolality triploidy 

Abbreviations

ELISA

enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

GLM

general linear model

Hb

total hemoglobin concentration

Hct

hematocrit

MEH

mean erythrocytic hemoglobin

MEHC

mean erythrocytic hemoglobin concentration

MEV

mean erythrocytic volume

PIT

passively integrated transponder

RBC

red blood cell

References

  1. Bahmani, M., Kazemi, R., Donskaya, P. 2001A comparative study of some hematological features in young reared sturgeons (Acipenser persicus and Huso huso)Fish Physiol. Biochem.24135140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, D.W., Wood, A.M., Litvak, M.K., Kieffer, J.D. 2005Haematology of juvenile Acipenser oxyrinchus and Acipenser brevirostrum at rest and following forced activityJ. Fish Biol.66208221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barton, B.A., Bollig, H., Hauskins, B.L., Jansen, C.R. 2000Juvenile pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and hybrid pallid×shovelnose (S. albus×platorynchus) sturgeons exhibit low physiological responses to acute handling and severe confinementComp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A126125134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton, B.A., Rahn, A.B., Feist, G., Bollig, H., Schreck, C.B. 1998Physiological stress responses of freshwater chondrostean paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) to acute physical disturbancesComp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A120355363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belanger, J.M., Son, J.H., Laugero, K.D., Moberg, G.P., Doroshov, S.I., Lankford, S.E., Cech, J.J.,Jr. 2001Effects of short-term management stress and ACTH injections on plasma cortisol levels in cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanusAquaculture203165176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bemis, W.E., Findeis, E.K., Grande, L. 1997An overview of AcipenseriformesEnviron. Biol. Fish.482571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benfey, T.J. 1999The physiology and behavior of triploid fishesRev. Fish. Sci.73967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benfey, T.J., Biron, M. 2000Acute stress response in triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)Aquaculture184167176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biron, M., Benfey, T.J. 1994Cortisol, glucose and hematocrit changes during acute stress, cohort sampling, and the diel cycle in diploid and triploid brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill)Fish Physiol. Biochem.13153160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blacklidge, K.H., Bidwell, C.A. 1993Three ploidy levels indicated by genome quantification in Acipenseriformes of North AmericaJ. Heredity84427430Google Scholar
  11. Cataldi, E., Di Marco, P., Mandich, A., Cataudella, S. 1998Serum parameters of Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes): effects of temperature and stressComp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A121351354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cech, J.J.,Jr., Crocker, C.E. 2002Physiology of sturgeon: effects of hypoxia and hypercapniaJ. Appl. Ichthyol.18320324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crocker, C.E., Cech, J.J.,Jr. 2002The effects of dissolved gases on oxygen consumption rate and ventilation frequency in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanusJ. Appl. Ichthyol.18338340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dadswell, M.J. 1984Status of the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, in CanadaCan. Field-Nat.987579Google Scholar
  15. Fijan, N. 2002Morphogenesis of blood cell lineages in channel catfishJ. Fish Biol.609991014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flynn, S.R. 2004. Sex control and reproductive biology of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum Lesuere. PhD. Thesis, University of New Brunswick, Department of Biology, Fredericton, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  17. Flynn, S.R., Matsuoka, M., Reith, M., Martin-Robichaud, D.J. and Benfey, T.J. 2006. Gynogenesis in shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum LeSuere. Aquaculture: in pressGoogle Scholar
  18. Houston, A.H. 1997Review: Are the classical hematological variables acceptable indicators of fish health?Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.126879893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hyndman, C.A., Kieffer, J.D., Benfey, T.J. 2003aPhysiology and survival of triploid brook trout following exhaustive exercise in warm waterAquaculture221629643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hyndman, C.A., Kieffer, J.D., Benfey, T.J. 2003bThe physiological response of diploid and triploid brook trout to exhaustive exerciseComp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A134167179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kieffer, J.D., Wakefield, A.M., Litvak, M.K. 2001Juvenile sturgeon exhibit reduced physiological responses to exerciseJ. Exp. Biol.20442814289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lowry, O.H., Passonneau, J.V. 1972A Flexible System of Enzymatic AnalysisAcademic PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Matty, A.J. 1985. Chapter 4 — The ‘Adrenal’ and the kidney hormones. In: Fish Endocrinology. pp.112–37. Timber Press, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  24. Pickering, A.D. 1981Stress and FishAcademic PressLondon, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  25. Sadler, J., Pankhurst, N.W., Pankhurst, P.M., King, H. 2000Physiological stress responses to confinement in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmonJ. Fish Biol.56506518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Underwood, A.J. 1997Experiments in Ecology: Their Logical Design and Interpretation using Analysis of VarianceCambridge University PressUnited KingdomGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of New BrunswickCanada

Personalised recommendations