Advertisement

A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles

  • Peiyi Sun
  • Roeland Bisschop
  • Huichang Niu
  • Xinyan HuangEmail author
Invited Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Fire Science Reviews

Abstract

Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs (\(E_{B}\) in Wh) crossing different scales as \(PHRR = 2E_{B}^{0.6}\). For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles.

Keywords

Li-ion battery Electric vehicle Fire incidents Fire tests Heat release rate Fire suppression 

List of Symbols

\(A_{EV}\)

EV floor area (m2)

\(A_{f}\)

Area of fuel or fire (m2)

\(\Delta H_{c}\)

Heat of combustion (MJ/kg)

\(\dot{m}\)

Burning rate (kg/s)

\(\dot{m}^{''}\)

Burning flux (kg/m2s)

\(\dot{q}^{''}\)

Heat flux (kW/m2)

Q

Heat release from fire (J)

T

Temperature (°C)

V

Voltage (V)

\(\eta\)

Combustion efficiency (%)

Abbreviations

BEV

Battery electric vehicle

EV

Electric vehicle

HRR

Heat release rate (W)

ICEV

Internal combustion engine vehicle

LIB

Lithium-ion battery

NCA

Nickel, cobalt, and aluminium oxide

NEDC

New European driving cycle

NMC

Nickel, manganese, and cobalt

PHRR

Peak heat release rate (W)

PHEV

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

SOC

State of charge (%)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors (PS and XH) would like to thank the support from HK Research Grant Council through the Early Career Scheme (25205519) and HK PolyU through the Central Research Grant (G-YBZ1). RB was funded by the Strategic vehicle research and innovation program FFI through the Swedish Energy Agency (No. 2017-014026). HN is supported by the Guangdong Technology Fund (2015B010118001).

References

  1. 1.
    Matulka R (2014) The history of the electric car. In: Department of Energy. https://www.energy.gov/articles/history-electric-car. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  2. 2.
    Anderson CD, Anderson J (2010) Electric and hybrid cars, 2nd edn. McFarland & Company, JeffersonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grauers A, Sarasini S, Karlström M, Industriteknik C (2013) Why electromobility and what is it? In: Sandén B (ed) Systems perspectives on electromobility. Chalmers University of Technology, GöteborgGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    BP (2018) Statistical review of world energy 2018. 1–53Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bisschop R, Willstrand O, Amon F, Rosengren M (2019) Fire safety of lithium-ion batteries in road vehicles. BoråsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bisschop R, Willstrand O, Rosengren M (2019) Handling lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles—preventing and recovering from hazardous events. In: 1st International symposium on lithium battery fire safety. Hefei, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report: crash and post-crash fire of electric-powered passenger vehicleGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CGTN (2019) Tesla car catches fire in China, investigation underway. https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d514d7a416a4d34457a6333566d54/index.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  9. 9.
    Bangkok Post (2018) Porsche catches fire while charging. https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1429518/porsche-catches-fire-while-charging. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  10. 10.
    Loveday S (2018) BMW i3 REx burns after catching fire while parked in Spain. In: INSIDEEVs. https://insideevs.com/news/337258/bmw-i3-rex-burns-after-catching-fire-while-parked-in-spain/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  11. 11.
    Zhou X (2018) Frequent fire accidents on electric vehicle. Operators 10:65–66Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report: highway HWY18FH013. National Transportation Safety BoardGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Revill J (2018) Tesla crash may have triggered battery fire: Swiss firefightersGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report—battery fire in electric-powered passenger car. In: National Transportation Safety Board. https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/accidentreports/pages/hwy18fh014-preliminary.aspx. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  15. 15.
    Deick M Van (2018) Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/Marco.vandeick/posts/344761026325031. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  16. 16.
    Gutman M, Yuon S (2018) Firefighters work 16 hours to put out fires in Tesla model S. In: ABC news. https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/tesla-opens-investigation-car-burst-flames-times/story?id=59930420. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  17. 17.
    Wang Q, Ping P, Zhao X, et al (2012) Thermal runaway caused fire and explosion of lithium ion battery. J Power Sources 208:210–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang Q, Mao B, Stoliarov SI, Sun J (2019) A review of lithium ion battery failure mechanisms and fire prevention strategies. Prog Energy Combust Sci 73:95–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2019.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Feng X, Ouyang M, Liu X, et al (2018) Thermal runaway mechanism of lithium ion battery for electric vehicles: a review. Energy Storage Mater 10:246–267.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ensm.2017.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ouyang D, Chen M, Huang Q, et al (2019) A Review on the thermal hazards of the lithium-ion battery and the corresponding countermeasures. Appl Sci Switz.  https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122483 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Evarts EC (2015) Lithium batteries: to the limits of lithium. Nature 526:S93–S95.  https://doi.org/10.1038/526s93a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moon G (2016) Renault-Samsung’s electric vehicle catches fire due to ignition from bonnet. In: ETRC·KGTLAB. http://www.ipnomics.net/?p=14858. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  23. 23.
    Pecht M (2015) Safety. In: CALCE Battery Research Group. https://web.calce.umd.edu/batteries/safety.html. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  24. 24.
    Home of EV (2018) What should we do during the EV fire? In: SOHU. https://www.sohu.com/a/233521985_526255. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  25. 25.
    Hertzke P, Müller N, Schenk S, Wu T (2018) The global electric-vehicle market is amped upand on the rise. McKinsey Center for Future MobilityGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Offer GJ (2015) Automated vehicles and electrification of transport. Energy Environ Sci 8:26–30.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ee02229g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Frost & Sullivan (2018) Global electric vehicle market outlook, 2018Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Egbue O, Long S (2012) Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: an analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions. Energy Policy 48:717–729.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    International Energy Agency (2018) Global EV outlook 2018: towards cross-modal electrification. IEA Publications, Paris.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264302365-en CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    The Economist Intelligence Unit (2018) France ranked top for EV adoption in 2017. In: The Economist. http://www.eiu.com/industry/article/526381436/france-ranked-top-for-ev-adoption-in-2017/2018-02-02. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  31. 31.
    Bjerkan KY, Nørbech TE, Nordtømme ME (2016) Incentives for promoting battery electric vehicle (BEV) adoption in Norway. Transp Res Part D 43:169–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2015.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Service USC (2017) The Electric Vehicle Market—France. In: International Trade Administration. https://www.export.gov/article?id=E-Mobility-in-France. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  33. 33.
    Germany Trade & Invest (2015) Electromobility in Germany: vision 2020 and beyondGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lu J (2018) Comparing U.S. and Chinese electric vehicle policies. In: Environmental and Energy Study Institute. https://www.eesi.org/articles/view/comparing-u.s.-and-chinese-electric-vehicle-policies. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  35. 35.
    Council on Clean Transportation I (2015) Supporting the electric vehicle market in U.S. citiesGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Howell S, Lee H, Heal A (2014) Leapfrogging or stalling out? Electric vehicles in China. HKS Working Paper No RWP14-035.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2493131
  37. 37.
    Gibson R (2018) What can we learn from Japan about EV adoption? In: FleetCarma, August 22. https://www.fleetcarma.com/can-learn-japan-ev-adoption/. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  38. 38.
    Industry Steering Committee (2009) Electric vehicle technology roadmap for Canada: a strategic vision for highway-capable battery-electric, plug-in and other hybrid-electric vehicles. Natural Resources CanadaGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu X, Wu Z, Stoliarov SI, et al (2016) Heat release during thermally-induced failure of a lithium ion battery: impact of cathode composition. Fire Saf J 85:10–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2016.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu X, Stoliarov SI, Denlinger M, et al (2015) Comprehensive calorimetry of the thermally-induced failure of a lithium ion battery. J Power Sources 280:516–525.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Joey D (2016) Musk frustrated that Koch brothers spending millions to kill electric carsGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Markus F (2016) 2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV drivetrain first look (w/Video). In: Motortrend Apr 6 2016. https://www.motortrend.com/cars/chevrolet/volt/2016/2017-chevrolet-bolt-ev-drivetrain-first-look-review/. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  43. 43.
    Arman A (2017) EV power-up may lie with prismatic tech. In: New straits times. https://www.nst.com.my/cbt/2017/12/315288/ev-power-may-lie-prismatic-tech. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  44. 44.
    (2019) Types of battery cells; cylindrical cell, button cell, pouch cell. In: Battery University. https://batteryuniversity.com/index.php/learn/article/types_of_battery_cells. Accessed 24 Apr 2019
  45. 45.
    Miles A (2018) The secret life of an EV battery. In: Sustainable Enterprises Media, Inc. https://cleantechnica.com/2018/08/26/the-secret-life-of-an-ev-battery/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  46. 46.
    Garcia-Valle R, Lopes JAP (2013) Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    SAMSUNG SDI The composition of EV batteries: cells? Modules? Packs? Let’s understand properly! http://www.samsungsdi.com/column/all/detail/54344.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  48. 48.
    Timofeeva E (2017) Comparing electric cars and their batteries. In: Inlfluit energy. http://www.influitenergy.com/comparing-electric-cars-and-their-batteries/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  49. 49.
    Dinger A, Martin R, Mosquet X, Rabl M, Rizoulis D, Russo MS (2010) Batteries for electric cars: challenges, opportunities, and the outlook to 2020. The Boston Consulting GroupGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hao M, Li J, Park S, et al (2018) Efficient thermal management of Li-ion batteries with a passive interfacial thermal regulator based on a shape memory alloy. Nat Energy 3:899–906.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0243-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kolly JM, Panagiotou J, Czech BA (2014) Failure analysis techniques for a lithium-ion battery fire investigation. Fire in vehiclesGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tesla (2019) Tesla Model S. https://www.tesla.com/models. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  53. 53.
    Drysdale D (2011) An introduction to fire dynamics, 3rd ed. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Andrea D (2018) A list of li-ion cells available today. In: Li-ion BMS. http://liionbms.com/php/cells.php. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  55. 55.
    Le Houx J (2017) Developments in composite energy storage. energy technology, environment and sustainability reviews 24832413Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Berjoza D, Jurgena I (2017) Effects of change in the weight of electric vehicles on their performance characteristics. Agron Res 15:952–963Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Idaho National Laboratory (2016) 2014 BMW i3 review-advanced vehicle testing—baseline vehicle testing result. INL/MIS-15-34211Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Compare side-by-side. In: US Department of Energy. https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=sbs&id=38524&id=38569&id=38525&id=38640. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  59. 59.
    Balakrishnan PG, Ramesh R, Prem Kumar T (2006) Safety mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 155:401–414.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tobishima SI, Yamaki JI (1999) A consideration of lithium cell safety. J Power Sources 81–82:882–886.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-7753(98)00240-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lecocq A, Eshetu GG, Grugeon S, et al (2016) Scenario-based prediction of Li-ion batteries fire-induced toxicity. J Power Sources 316:197–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.02.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gough N (2014) Sony warns some new laptop batteries may catch fire. In: The New York times. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/12/technology/sony-warns-some-new-laptop-batteries-may-catch-fire.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  63. 63.
    Liu Y, Sun P, Niu H, et al (2020) Propensity to self-heating ignition of open-circuit pouch Lithium-ion battery pile on a hot boundary. Fire Saf J (under review)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    He X, Restuccia F, Zhang Y, et al (2019) Experimental study of self-heating ignition of lithium-ion batteries during storage and transport: effect of the number of cells. Fire Technol (under review)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Blum A, Long RT (2015) Full-scale fire tests of electric drive vehicle batteries. SAE Int J Passeng Cars Mech Syst 8:565–572.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1383 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Justen R, Schöneburg R (2011) Crash safety of hybrid and battery electric vehicles. In: 22nd Enhanced safety of vehicles conference, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wisch M, J. Ott RT, Léost Y, et al (2014) Recommendations and guidelines for battery crash safety and post-crash handling. EVERSAFEGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Uwai H, Isoda A, Ichikawa H, Takahashi N (2011) Development of body structure for crash safety of the newly developed electric vehicle. In: 22nd Enhanced safety of vehicles conference, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fairley P (2010) Speed bumps ahead for electric-vehicle charging. IEEE Spectrum 47:13–14.  https://doi.org/10.1109/mspec.2010.5372476 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zheng J, Engelhard MH, Mei D, et al (2017) Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries. Nat Energy  https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2017.12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Larsson F, Mellander B-E (2017) Lithium-ion batteries used in electrified vehicles—general risk assessment and construction guidelines from a fire and gas release perspective. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, BoråsGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Larsson F (2017) Lithium-ion battery safety-assessment by abuse testing, fluoride gas emissions and fire propagation. Chalmers University of Technology, GöteborgGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Colella F (2016) Understanding electric vehicle fires. In: Fire protection and safety in tunnels. StavangerGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Glassman I, Yetter RA (2008) Combustion, 4th ed. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Babrauskas V (2003) Ignition handbook. Fire science publishers/society of fire protection engineers, IssaquahGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Doughty DH, Pesaran AA (2012) Vehicle battery safety roadmap guidance. Renewable Energy Laboratory, DenverCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Said AO, Lee C, Stoliarov SI, Marshall AW (2019) Comprehensive analysis of dynamics and hazards associated with cascading failure in 18650 lithium ion cell arrays. Appl Energy 248:415–428.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.04.141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kumar K (2015) Flammability of plastics in today’s automobiles. SAE Tech Papers.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tewarson A (1997) A study of the flammability of plastics in vehicle components and parts. Technical Report FMRC JI 0B1R7RC, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MAGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Iguchi M (2015) Divergence and convergence of automobile fuel economy regulations: a comparative analysis of EU, Japan and the US. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ribière P, Grugeon S, Morcrette M, et al (2012) Investigation on the fire-induced hazards of Li-ion battery cells by fire calorimetry. Energy Environ Sci 5:5271–5280.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c1ee02218k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    U. S. Department of Energy (2018) FOTW #1010, January 1, 2018: All-electric light vehicle ranges can exceed those of some gasoline light vehicles January 1, 2018. https://www.energy.gov/eere/vehicles/articles/fotw-1010-january-1-2018-all-electric-light-vehicle-ranges-can-exceed-those. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  83. 83.
    Fu Y, Lu S, Li K, et al (2015) An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter. J Power Sources 273:216–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.09.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen M, Dongxu O, Liu J, Wang J (2019) Investigation on thermal and fire propagation behaviors of multiple lithium-ion batteries within the package. Appl Therm Eng 157:113750.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.113750 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chen M, He Y, De Zhou C, et al (2016) experimental study on the combustion characteristics of primary lithium batteries fire. Fire Technol 52:365–385.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-014-0450-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chen M, Zhou D, Chen X, et al (2015) Investigation on the thermal hazards of 18650 lithium ion batteries by fire calorimeter. J Therm Anal Calorim 122:755–763.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-015-4751-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Larsson F, Andersson P, Blomqvist P, et al (2014) Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests. J Power Sources 271:414–420.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ping P, Wang QS, Huang PF, et al (2015) Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test. J Power Sources 285:80–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sturk D, Hoffmann L, Ahlberg Tidblad A (2015) Fire tests on e-vehicle battery cells and packs. Traffic Injury Prev 16:159–164.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2015.1015117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wang Z, Yang H, Li Y, et al (2019) Thermal runaway and fire behaviors of large-scale lithium ion batteries with different heating methods. J Hazard Mater 379:120730.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Macneil DD, Lougheed G, Lam C, et al (2015) Electric vehicle fire testing. In: 8th EVS-GTR meeting, Washington, USA 1–5 June 2015Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Iclodean C, Varga B, Burnete N, et al (2017) Comparison of different battery types for electric vehicles. In: IOP conference series: materials science and engineeringCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    (2019) 2019 Kia Niro EV Specifications. In: Kia Media. https://www.kiamedia.com/us/en/models/niro-ev/2019/specifications. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  94. 94.
    Watanabe N, Sugawa O, Suwa T, et al (2012) Comparison of fire behaviours of an electric-battery-powered behicle and gasoline-powered vehicle in a real-scale fire test. In: 2nd International conference on fires in vehicles, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lecocq A, Bertana M, Truchot B, Marlair G (2012) Comparison of the fire consequences of an electric vehicle and an internal combustion engine vehicle. In: International conference on fires in vehicles—FIVE 2012. Chicago, United States, pp 183–194Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    WPI VH (2017) Li-ion battery energy stroage systems: Effect of separation deistances based on a radiation heat transfer analysisGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Larsson F, Andersson P, Mellander B-E (2016) Lithium-ion battery aspects on fires in electrified vehicles on the basis of experimental abuse tests. Batteries 2:9.  https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2020009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lam C, MacNeil D, Kroeker R, et al (2016) Full-scale fire testing of electric and internal combustion engine vehicles. In: 4th International conference on fire in vehicle, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stephens D, Stout P, Sullivan G, et al (2019) Lithium-ion battery safety issues for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (Report No DOT HS 812 418), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) (2017) Accident assistance and recovery of vehicles with high-voltage systems. Verband der Automobilindustrie eV 1–30Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Thermal A, Chamber T (2019) Analysis of li-ion battery gases vented in an inert atmosphere thermal test chamber. 5:1–17Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Guo F, Ozaki Y, Nishimura K, et al (2019) Experimental study on flame stability limits of lithium ion battery electrolyte solvents with organophosphorus compounds addition using a candle-like wick combustion system. Combust Flame 207:63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2019.05.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    (2019) Tesla vehicle safety report. TeslaGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    (2019) The Home Office, Road vehicle fires dataset, August 2019, UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/fire-statistics-incident-level-datasets. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  105. 105.
    Huang X, Nakamura Y (2020) A review of fundamental combustion phenomena in wire fires. Fire Technol 1–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-019-00918-5
  106. 106.
    EV century (2018) Lifan 650EV spontaneously ignited. In: GaoGong EV Web. http://www.gg-ev.com/asdisp2-65b095fb-26641-.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  107. 107.
    Leung C (2015) First Hong Kong-designed electric bus rolls out for a month of test-drives on city’s roads. In: South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/economy/article/1872155/first-hong-kong-designed-electric-bus-hits-citys-roads-month. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  108. 108.
    Herron D (2016) Model S catches fire in Norway at supercharger, charging system seemingly at fault. In: The Long tail pipe. https://longtailpipe.com/2016/01/01/model-s-catches-fire-in-norway-at-supercharger-charging-system-seemingly-at-fault/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  109. 109.
    Blanco S (2013) Tesla model S catches fire near Seattle, no injuries reported. In: Autoblog. https://www.autoblog.com/2013/10/02/tesla-model-s-fire/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  110. 110.
    Lambert F (2017) Tesla Model S fire vs 35 firefighters—watch impressive operation after a high-speed crash. In: Electrek, 18 October 2017. https://electrek.co/2017/10/18/tesla-model-s-fire-high-speed-crash-video-impressive-operation/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  111. 111.
    Winkler S (2018) Final report—crash involving Tesla Model S—10400 South Bangerter Highway. South Jordan Police DepartmentGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Marshall R Report confirms sensor failure caused electric bus fire. In: The Frederick News Post, Nov 3, 2016. https://www.fredericknewspost.com/news/politics_and_government/levels_of_government/county/report-confirms-sensor-failure-caused-electric-bus-fire/article_7689d9d5-7ded-5586-b6d9-b2b2519ca568.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  113. 113.
    Mengjie (2017) Tourist buses catch fire in Beijing, no casualties. In: XINHUANET. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-05/01/c_136248785.htm. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  114. 114.
    Shiming Y (2017) Hundreds of electric buses ruined in fire. In: 21cnevcom. http://www.21cnev.com/html/201705/775455_1.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  115. 115.
    Herron D (2015) Electric cars are safer than gasoline cars. In: Green transportation. https://greentransportation.info/ev-ownership/safer/index.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  116. 116.
    Lu L, Han X, Li J, et al (2013) A review on the key issues for lithium-ion battery management in electric vehicles. J Power Sources 226:272–288.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.10.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Williams FA (1977) Mechanisms of fire spread. Symp (Int) Combust 16:1281–1294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0082-0784(77)80415-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Batenburg C Van (2014) Introduction to HEV, PHEV and EVs: For technicians and students new to high-voltage systems, 1st edn. Automotive Career Development CenterGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Warner JT (2015) The handbook of lithium-ion battery pack design: chemistry, components, types and terminology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Beauregard GP, Phoenix AZ (2008) Report of investigation: Hybrids plus plug in hybrid electric vehicle. National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Inc and US Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory by ETEC, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    He X (2016) A mixed energy public bus caught on fire in Shenzhen. In: Inewenergy. http://www.inewenergy.com/news/guonei/031GO162016.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  122. 122.
    China battery enterprise alliance (2016) Wuzhoulong hybrid bus fire. http://www.cbea.com/hydt/201603/16778.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  123. 123.
    Chatman S (2018) Denton woman says Kia Won’t Reimburse Her After Car Catches Fire. In: NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth. https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/Denton-Woman-Says-Kia-Wont-Reimburse-Her-After-Car-Catches-Fire-491908751.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  124. 124.
    (2018) Bt10m Porsche up in flames as battery charging goes wrong. In: THE NATION, 16 Mar 2018. https://www.nationthailand.com/news/30341102. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  125. 125.
    Garche J, Brandt K (2019) Li-battery safety. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tidblad AA (2018) Regulatory outlook on electric vehicle safety. In: 5th International conference on fires in vehicles. BoråsGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Cabrera Castillo E (2015) Advances in battery technologies for electric vehicles. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Doughty DH, Crafts CC (2006) FreedomCAR electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. SAND2005-3123Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ruiz V, Pfrang A, Kriston A, et al (2018) A review of international abuse testing standards and regulations for lithium ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 81:1427–1452.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Andreas Sater Boe (2017) Full scale electric vehicle fire test. In: Fire product search. https://www.fireproductsearch.com/full-scale-electric-vehicle-fire-test/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  131. 131.
    SAE (2009) Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) safety and abuse testing. SAE J2464_200911 2Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    SAE Ground Vehicle Technical Committees (2011) Electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion battery system safety standardGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    UL (2013) Batteries for use in electric vehicles. UL 2580Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    IEC (2010) Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles—part 2: reliability and abuse testingGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    SAE (2011) Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storages. SAE J2464 2Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    UNCECE (2015) Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to specific requirements for the electric power train [2015/05]. Regulation No 100 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    SAE (2013) Safety standard for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion battery system utilizing lithium-based rechargeabel cell J2929-201302Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Spotnitz R, Franklin J (2003) Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells. J Power Sources 113:81–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-7753(02)00488-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Zhang X (2011) Thermal analysis of a cylindrical lithium-ion battery. Electrochim Acta 56:1246–1255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2010.10.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Eshetu GG, Jeong S, Pandard P, et al (2017) Comprehensive insights into the thermal stability, biodegradability, and combustion chemistry of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. ChemSusChem 10:3146–3159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201701006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Spinner NS, Field CR, Hammond MH, et al (2015) Physical and chemical analysis of lithium-ion battery cell-to-cell failure events inside custom fire chamber. J Power Sources 279:713–721.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Chen S-C, Wang Y-Y, Wan C-C (2006) Thermal analysis of spirally wound lithium batteries. J Electrochem Soc 153:A637–A637.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2168051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Santhanagopalan S, Ramadass P, Zhang J (Zhengming) (2009) Analysis of internal short-circuit in a lithium ion cell. J Power Sources 194:550–557.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Finegan D, Scheel M, Robinson JB, et al (2015) In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway. Nat Commun 6:6924.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7924 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Cai L, White RE (2011) Mathematical modeling of a lithium ion battery with thermal effects in COMSOL Inc. Multiphysics (MP) software. J Power Sources 196:5985–5989.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chen SC, Wan CC, Wang YY (2005) Thermal analysis of lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 140:111–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.05.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kim G-H, Pesaran A, Spotnitz R (2007) A three-dimensional thermal abuse model for lithium-ion cells. J Power Sources 170:476–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Mahamud R, Park C (2011) Reciprocating air flow for Li-ion battery thermal management to improve temperature uniformity. J Power Sources 196:5685–5696.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.02.076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    US Department of Transportation (2014) Interim guidance for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles equipped with high-voltage batteries. DOT HS 811 575Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wang Q (2018) Study on fire and fire spread characteristics of lithium ion batteries. In: 2018 China national symposium on combustionGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Andersson P, Brandt J, Willstrand O (2016) Full scale fire-test of an electric hybrid bus. SP ReportGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Łebkowski A (2017) Electric vehicle fire extinguishing system. Przegląd Elektrotechniczny 93:329–332.  https://doi.org/10.15199/48.2017.01.77 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gardiner J (2017) The rise of electric cars could leave us with a big battery waste problem. In: The Guardian, 10 Aug 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/aug/10/electric-cars-big-battery-waste-problem-lithium-recycling. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  154. 154.
    Polinares (2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium. GLOBAL 2000 VerlagsgesmbHGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kong L, Li C, Jiang J, Pecht MG (2018) Li-ion battery fire hazards and safety strategies. Energies 11:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    NFPA (2018) Standard for porable fire extinguishers. NFPA 10Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Schiemann M, Bergthorson J, Fischer P, et al (2016) A review on lithium combustion. Appl Energy 162:948–965.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Andersson P, Wikman J, Arvidson M, et al (2017) Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea. RISE Research Institutes of SwedenGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Willstrand O (2019) To manage fire risks related to Li-ion batteries in vehicles Universitet/högskola/företag. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden 8P03983-03:Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    United Nations Economic and Social Council (UNECE) (1958) Agreement concerning the adoption of harmonized technical United Nations regulations for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the. In: Unitied Nations Treaty. United Nations, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    The Swedish Fire Protection Association (2016) SBF 127:16 Regler för brandskydd på arbetsfordon och -maskinerGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    The Swedish Fire Protection Association (2017) Regler för fast automatiskt släcksystem på bussar. SBF 128:3Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (2018) SP Method 4912Method for testing the suppression performance of fire suppression systems intended forengine compartments of buses, coachesand other heavy vehiclesGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Andersson P, Sundström B (2014) Proceedings from 3rd international conference on fires in vehicles. In: FIVE—fires in vehicles. p 274Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    NFPA (2015) Emergency field guide. NFPAGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    (2019) Fire Suppression Systems. In: SafeQuip. http://www.safequip.co.za/product/ceodeux-suppression-system/. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  167. 167.
    (2018) “Ferocious” fire ripped through Liverpool Echo Arena car park. In: BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-merseyside-42533830. Accessed 20 Mar 2019
  168. 168.
    Joyeux D, Kruppa J, Cajot L-G, et al (2001) Demonstration of real fire tests in car parks and high rise buildingsGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Richard Read (2011) Largest electric-car charging site: Would You Believe Houston? In: Green Car Reports. https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1066818_largest-electric-car-charging-site-would-you-believe-houston. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  170. 170.
    NFPA (2020) National electrical code. NFPA 70Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Curtland C (2013) Parking lot EV chargers. In: Buildings. https://www.buildings.com/article-details/articleid/15485/title/parking-lot-ev-chargers/viewall/true. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  172. 172.
    NFPA (2014) Hybrid and electric vehicle emergency field guide. 1–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Centre for Fire EngineeringHong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloonHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Fire ResearchRISE Research Institutes of SwedenBoråsSweden
  3. 3.Guangzhou Industrial Technology Research InstituteChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations