Advertisement

Comparative Study on Thermal Runaway Characteristics of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Modules Under Different Overcharge Conditions

  • Lei Sun
  • Chao Wei
  • Dongliang Guo
  • Jianjun Liu
  • Zhixing Zhao
  • Zhikun Zheng
  • Yang JinEmail author
Article

Abstract

In order to study the thermal runaway characteristics of the lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery used in energy storage station, here we set up a real energy storage prefabrication cabin environment, where thermal runaway process of the LFP battery module was tested and explored under two different overcharge conditions (direct overcharge to thermal runaway and overcharge to safety vent open-standing–recharge to thermal runaway). In this experiment, surveillance cameras, infrared imagers, temperature detectors, and gas detectors were used to guarantee all-around online observation. The experimental results show that under the conditions of these experiments, stop the overcharging process in time after the first battery safety vent is opened can effectively suppress the further development of thermal runaway, and maintain a safe state within 2 h. It also indicates that the thermal runaway process of LFP battery module changes with heat accumulation which needs reaction time, if the heat accumulation could be stopped in time, the occurrence of thermal runaway accidents would be avoided. This provides effective theoretical guidance for safety warning and fire protection of electrochemical energy storage stations with LFP battery system.

Keywords

Electrochemical energy storage station Lithium iron phosphate battery Battery safety Overcharge Thermal runaway 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research presented in this paper is supported by State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., LTD. (J2019004) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 51807180).

References

  1. 1.
    Gangui Y, Dongyuan L, Junhui L, Gang M (2018) A cost accounting method of the Li-ion battery energy storage system for frequency regulation considering the effect of life degradation. Prot Contr Mod Power Syst 3(3):43–51Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tobishima S (2002) Reaction behavior of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Solid State Ion 148(3–4):283–289Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bandhauer TM, Garimella S, Fuller TF (2011) A critical review of thermal issues in lithium-ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 158(3):R1–R25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang Q, Mao B, Stoliarov SI, Sun J (2019) A review of lithium ion battery failure mechanisms and fire prevention strategies. Prog Energy Combust Sci 73:95–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larsson F, Mellander B-E (2014) Abuse by external heating, overcharge and short circuiting of commercial lithium-ion battery cells. J Electrochem Soc 161(10):A1611–A1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feng X, Sun J, Ouyang M et al (2015) Characterization of penetration induced thermal runaway propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery module. J Power Source 275:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang Q, Zhao X, Ye J, Sun Q, Ping P, Sun J (2016) Thermal response of lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging under adiabatic conditions. J Thermal Anal Calorim 124(1):417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang Q, Sun J, Yao X et al (2005) Thermal stability of LiPF6/EC + DEC electrolyte with charged electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Thermochim Acta 437(1–2):12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Golubkov AW, Scheikl S, Planteu R et al (2015) Thermal runaway of commercial 18650 Li-ion batteries with LFP and NCA cathodes—impact of state of charge and overcharge. RSC Adv 5(70):57171–57186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang P (2018) Study on the fire hazard and thermal runaway critical conditions of lithium ion batteries. University of Science and Technology of China, HefeiGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ouyang D, Liu J, Chen M et al (2018) An experimental study on the thermal failure propagation in lithium-ion battery pack. J Electrochem Soc 165(10):A2184–A2193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fu Y, Lu S, Li K et al (2015) An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter. J Power Sources 273:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ouyang D, Chen M, Liu J et al (2018) Investigation of a commercial lithium-ion battery under overcharge/over-discharge failure conditions. RSC Adv 8:33414–33424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Niculuţǎ M-C, Veje C (2012) Analysis of the thermal behavior of a LiFePO4 battery cell. J Phys Conf Ser 395(1):2013Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qi C, Zhu Y, Gao F et al (2018) Mathematical model for thermal behavior of lithium ion battery pack under overcharge. Int J Heat Mass Transf 124:552–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Larsson F, Anderson J, Andersson P et al (2016) Thermal modelling of cell-to-cell fire propagation and cascading thermal runaway failure effects for lithium-ion battery cells and modules using fire walls. J Electrochem Soc 163(14):A2854–A2865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song WQ, Hua SJ, Ning CS et al (2005) Research progress in thermal safety of Li-ion batteries. Battery Bimon 35:240–241Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen Y (2019) Reaction diffusion study on the inhibition of dendritic cells in lithium batteries. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Institute of process engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Junhui L, Fengjie G, Gangui Y, Tianyang Z, Jianlin L (2018) Modeling and SOC estimation of lithium iron phosphate battery considering capacity loss. Prot Contr Mod Power Syst 3(3):61–69Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang Q, Huang P, Ping P et al (2017) Combustion behavior of lithium iron phosphate battery induced by external heat radiation. J Loss Prev Process Ind 49:961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang Q, Ping P, Zhao X et al (2012) Thermal runaway caused fire and explosion of lithium ion battery. J Power Sources 208:210–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lu L, Han X, Li J et al (2013) A review on the key issues for lithium-ion battery management in electric vehicles. J Power Sources 226:272–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yuan QF, Zhao F, Wang W, Zhao Y, Liang Z, Yan D (2015) Overcharge failure investigation of lithium-ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 178:682–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen M, De Zhou C, Wang J et al (2016) Experimental study on the combustion characteristics of primary lithium batteries fire. Fire Technol 52(2):365–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., Ltd. Research InstituteNanjingChina
  2. 2.Research Center of Grid Energy Storage and Battery Application, School of Electrical EngineeringZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations