Advertisement

Study of Environmental-Friendly Firefighting Foam Based on the Mixture of Hydrocarbon and Silicone Surfactants

  • Youjie Sheng
  • Ning Jiang
  • Shouxiang LuEmail author
  • Qiuhong Wang
  • Yanli Zhao
  • Xiangrong Liu
Article

Abstract

The application of conventional aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) has been severely restricted due to the serious environmental hazard caused by the key component, fluorocarbon surfactants. Environmental-friendly fluorine-free firefighting foams need to be developed urgently. In this study, five silicone surfactants are chosen as key component to prepare fluorine-free firefighting foams. The aqueous solution properties of the fluorine-free firefighting foams are studied in details, including surface tension, interfacial tension, spreading property, viscosity and foaming ability. Foam drainage and foam spread on heptane surface are analyzed. Fire extinguishing and burn-back performance of fluorine-free foams is evaluated based on a small-scale standard method. Particularly, fire extinguishing and burn-back performance of a commercial AFFF is also evaluated as a comparison. Results show that fluorine-free foams cannot form aqueous film on cyclohexane surface, no matter whether spreading coefficient is greater than zero or not. Fluorine-free foams exhibit much better foam stability but worse foam spread property than commercial AFFF. Not all the fluorine-free foams containing silicone surfactant performed as well as AFFF containing fluorocarbon surfactant. Only fluorine-free foam containing silicone surfactant of OFX-5211 shows better fire extinguishing and burn-back performance than AFFF. The higher efficiency of fluorine-free foam in fire extinguishing and burn-back should be attributed to the stronger foam stability.

Keywords

Firefighting foam Environmental-friendly Foam drainage Foam spreading Fire extinguishing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present work was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51904230), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2019M653700), Key R&D plan of Shaanxi Province (2017ZDXM-SF-092), Opening Fund of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (No. HZ2019-KF03), and Doctor Initial Funding of Xi’an University of Science and Technology (No. 6310118032).

References

  1. 1.
    Mudan KS (1984) Thermal radiation hazards from hydrocarbon pool fires. Prog Energy Combust Sci 10:59–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siddapureddy S, Wehrstedt KD, Prabhu SV (2016) Heat transfer to bodies engulfed in di-tert-butyl peroxide pool fires-Numerical simulations. J Loss Prev Process Ind 44:204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guiberti TF, Cutcher H, Roberts WL, Masri AR (2017) Influence of pilot flame parameters on the stability of turbulent jet flames. Energy Fuels 31:2128–2137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saisirirat P, Foucher F, Chanchaona S, Mounaïmrousselle C (2010) Spectroscopic measurements of low-temperature heat release for homogeneous combustion compression ignition (HCCI) n-Heptane/Alcohol mixture combustion. Energy Fuels. 24:5404–5409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kong D, Liu P, Zhang J, Fan M, Tao C (2017) Small scale experiment study on the characteristics of boilover. J Loss Prev Process Ind 48:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hu L, Wang Q, Delichatsios M, Lu S, Tang F (2014) Flame radiation fraction behaviors of sooty buoyant turbulent jet diffusion flames in reduced-and normal atmospheric pressures and a global correlation with Reynolds number. Fuel 116:781–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bouhafid A, Vantelon JP, Souil JM, Bosseboeuf G, Rongere FX (1989) Characterisation of thermal radiation from freely burning oil pool fires. Fire Saf J 15:367–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ditch BD, de Ris JL, Blanchat TK, Chaos M, Bill RGJr, Dorofeev SB (2013) Pool fires—an empirical correlation. Combust Flame 160:2964– 2974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kong D, Zhang Z, Ping P, Chen G, He X, Yang H (2018) Experimental study on burning behavior of crude oil pool fire in annular ice cavities. Fuel 234:464–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hu L, Liu S, Wu L (2013) Flame radiation feedback to fuel surface in medium ethanol and heptane pool fires with cross air flow. Combust Flame 160:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schaefer TH, Dlugogorski BZ, Kennedy EM (2008) Sealability properties of fluorine free firefighting foams (FfreeF), Fire Technol 44:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lattimer BY, Hanauska CP, Scheffey JL, Williams FW (2003) The use of small-scale test data to characterize some aspects of firefighting foam for suppression modeling, Fire Saf J 38:117–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sheng Y, Jiang N, Lu S, Li C (2018) Fluorinated and fluorine-free firefighting foams spread on heptane surface. Colloid Surface A 552:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sheng Y, Lu S, Xu M, Wu X, Li C (2016) Effect of Xanthan gum on the performance of aqueous film-forming foam. J Dispers Sci Technol 37:1664–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang Q, Wang L, Bi Y, Xu D, Zhi H, Qiu P (2015) Experimental investigation of foam spread and extinguishment of the large-scale methanol pool fire. J Hazard Mater 287:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Laundess AJ, Rayson MS, Kennedy EM, Dlugogorski BZ (2011) Small-scale test protocol for firefighting foams DEF (AUST) 5706: effect of bubble size distribution and ER. Fire Technol 47:149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Magrabi SA, Dlugogorski BZ, Jameson GJ (2001) Free drainage in aqueous foams: model and experimental study, AICHE J 47:314–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Magrabi SA, Dlugogorski BZ, Jameson GJ (2002) A comparative study of drainage characteristics in AFFF and FFFP compressed-air firefighting foams. Fire Saf J 37:21–51Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kishi T, Mitsuru A (2008) Study on the generation of perfluorooctane sulfonate from the aqueous film-forming foam. J Hazard Mater 159:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schaefer CE, Andaya C, Urtiaga A, McKenzie ER, Higgins CP (2015) Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid(PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs). J Hazard Mater 295:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rodriguez-Freire L, Abad-Fernández N, Sierra-Alvarez R, Hoppe-Jones C, Peng H, Giesy JP, Keswani M (2016) Sonochemical degradation of perfluorinated chemicals in aqueous film-forming foams. J Hazard Mater 317:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sheng Y, Wu X, Lu S, Li C (2016) Experimental study on foam properties of mixed systems of silicone and hydrocarbon surfactants. J Surfactants Deterg 19(4): 823–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hetzer R, Kümmerlen F, Wirz K, Blunk D (2014) Fire testing a new fluorine-free AFFF based on a novel class of environmentally sound high performance siloxane surfactants. Fire Saf Sci 11:1261–1270oCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang P (2015) Application of green surfactants developing environment friendly foam extinguishing agent. Fire Technol 51(3):503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vinogradov AV, Kuprin DS, Abduragimov IM, Kuprin GN, Serebriyakov E, Vinogradov VV (2016) Silica foams for fire prevention and firefighting. ACS Appl Mater Inter 8(1):29–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kennedy M, Conroy M, Dougherty J, Otto N, Williams B, Ananth R, Fleming J (2015) Bubble coarsening dynamics in fluorinated and non-fluorinated firefighting foams. Colloid Surface A 470:268–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hinnant KM, Conroy MW, Ananth R (2017) Influence of fuel on foam degradation for fluorinated and fluorine-free foams. Colloids Surf A 522:1–17Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dlugogorski BZ, Phiyanalinmat S, Kennedy EM (2005) Dynamic surface and interfacial tension of AFFF and Fluorine-Free Class B foam Solutions. In: Fire safety science: Procedings of the eighth international symposium, pp 719–730Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sheng Y, Jiang N, Sun X, Lu S, Li C (2018) Experimental study on effect of foam stabilizers on aqueous film-forming foam. Fire Technol 54(1):211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sheinson RS, Williams BA, Green C, Fleming JW, Anleitner R, Ayers S, Barylski D (2002) The future of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF): performance parameters and requirements. Naval Research LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moran HE, Burnett JC, Leonard JT (1971) Suppression of Fuel Evaporation by Aqueous Films of Fluorochemical Surfactant Solutions (No.NRL-7247). Naval Research Lab Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Svitova T, Hoffmann H, Hill RM (1996) Trisiloxane surfactants: surface/interfacial tension dynamics and spreading on hydrophobic surfaces. Langmuir 12(7):1712–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rosen MJ, Kunjappu JT (2012) Surfactants and interfacial phenomena. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 308–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sheng Y, Lu S, Jiang N, Wu X, Li C (2018) Drainage of aqueous film-forming foam stabilized by different foam stabilizers. J Dispers Sci Technol 39(9):1266–1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youjie Sheng
    • 1
  • Ning Jiang
    • 2
  • Shouxiang Lu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Qiuhong Wang
    • 1
  • Yanli Zhao
    • 1
  • Xiangrong Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Collage of Safety Science and EngineeringXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations