Advertisement

Thermal Path Reconstruction for Reinforced Concrete Under Fire

  • Paola Meloni
  • Fausto Mistretta
  • Flavio StochinoEmail author
  • Gianfranco Carcangiu
Article

Abstract

In post-fire investigation, the damage of fire-exposed concrete is usually related to the temperature time-history. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on reinforced concrete, cement pastes and mortars exposed to fire, aimed at identifying the benchmarks necessary to reconstruct the thermal path 15 dry core samples were obtained from a real fire damaged structure and compared to other reference dry cores collected in not damaged zones of the same structure. In addition, 16 irregular spalling samples were collected and investigated. In order to assess changes in mineralogical composition and microstructure modifications due to temperature, 20 cubic cement pastes samples and 20 prismatic mortars specimens were realized and exposed to temperature ranging from \(200\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\) up to \(800\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\) with a gradient of \(10\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\)/min and keeping the maximum temperature for 1 h. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Thermoanalysis and MIP porosimetry along with Helium picnometry allowed to investigate the damage degree and the mineralogical changes of the concrete and other cement based materials. Calibrated Colorimetry could determine fire temperature in the different parts of the samples due to colour changes in the mineralogical phases and in the microstructure of cement materials. The absence or presence of some specific minerals (like Portlandite), the colorimetric variations and other microstructural features are markers capable of assessing the temperature reached with high accuracy. The approach and the data showcased in this work can be useful for post-fire investigations, for theoretical and numerical models tuning and to optimize the structural retrofitting.

Keywords

Fire damages Cement Reinforced concrete Colorimetry Porosimetry Microscopy Mineralogical composition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support of the Italian Ministry of University and Research, the Conference of Rectors of Italian Universities and Confindustria, the Italian Industrial Federation, under the PhD-ITalents programme Grant No. 145145711

References

  1. 1.
    Gales J, Parker T, Cree D, Green M (2016) Fire performance of sustainable recycled concrete aggregates: mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and current research needs. Fire Technol 52:817–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anand N, Prince G (2014) Effect of grade of concrete on the performance of self-compacting concrete beams subjected to elevated temperatures. Fire Technol 50:1269–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Del Prete I, Bilotta A, Nigro E (2015) Performances at high temperature of RC bridge decks strengthened with EBR-FRP. Compos Part B Eng 68:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nigro E, Bilotta A, Cefarelli G, Manfredi G, Cosenza E (2012) Performance under fire situations of concrete members reinforced with FRP rods: bond models and design nomograms. J Compos Constr 16:395–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lamond JF, Pielert JH (2006) Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials. ASTM, International-Standars Wordwide, STP 196 D, Bridgeport, NJ.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Overholt KJ, Ezekoye OA (2015) Quantitative testing of fire scenario hypotheses: a bayesian inference approach. Fire Technol 51:335–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Östman B, Tsantaridis L (2015) Fire scenarios for multi-storey Façades with emphasis on full-scale testing of wooden Façades. Fire Technol 51:1495–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Annerel E, Taerwe L (2009) Revealing the temperature history in concrete after fire exposure by microscopic analysis. Cem Concr Res 39:1239–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nijland TG, Larbi JA (2001) Unravelling the temperature distribution in fire-damaged concrete by means of PFM microscopy: outline of the approach and review of potentially useful reactions. Heron 46:253–264Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hurley JM, Gottuk D, Hall JR, Harada K, Kuligowski E, Puchovsky M, Torero JL, Watts JM, Wieczorek CJ (2015) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li M, Qian CX, Sun W (2004) Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete after fire. Cem Concr Res 34:1001–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Colombo M, Felicetti R (2007) New NDT techniques for the assessment of fire-damaged concrete structures. Fire Saf J 42:461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stochino F, Mistretta F, Meloni P, Carcangiu G (2017) Integrated approach for post-fire reinforced concrete structures assessment. Period Polytech Civil Eng 61(4):677–699Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Acito M, Stochino F, Tattoni S (2011) Structural response and reliability analysis of RC beam subjected to explosive loading. Appl Mech Mater 82:434–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stochino F (2016) RC beams under blast load: reliability and sensitivity analysis. Eng Fail Anal 66:544–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hollis NW (1999) Petrographic methods of examining hardened concrete: a petrographic manual. Technical report VTRC-92-R14, Virginia Transportation Research Council (VTRC)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ramachandran VS, Beaudoin JJ (2001) Handbook of analytical techniques in concrete science and technology, principles, techniques, and applications. Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, LLC Norwich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taylor HFW, Beaudoin JJ (1964) The chemistry of cements. Academic Press Inc., LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pei Y, Agostini F, Skoczylas F (2017) The effects of high temperature heating on the gas permeability and porosity of a cementitious material. Cem Concr Res 95:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sant G, Bentz D, Weiss J (2011) Capillary porosity depercolation in cement-based materials: measurement techniques and factors which influence their interpretation. Cem Concr Res 41(8):854–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herve E, Care S, Seguin JP (2010) Influence of the porosity gradient in cement paste matrix on the mechanical behavior of mortar. Cem Concr Res 40(7):1060–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bazant ZP, Kaplan MF (1996) Concrete at high temperatures. Longman Addison-Wesley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hager I (2014) Colour change in heated concrete. Fire Technol 50:945–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yüzer N, Aköz F, Öztürk LD (2004) Compressive strength-color change relation in mortars at high temperature. Cem Concr Res 34(10):1803–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kirchhof LD, Lorenzi A, Silva Filho LCP (2015) Assessment of concrete residual strength at high temperatures using ultrasonic pulse velocity. e-J Nondestruct Test 20(7):1–9Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin CH, Chen ST, Hwang TL (1989) Residual strength of reinforced concrete columns exposed to fire. J Chin Inst Eng 12(5):557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lie TT, Rowe TJ, Lin TD (1986) Residual strength of fire-exposed reinforced concrete columns. Spec Publ 92:153–174Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen X, Wu S, Zhou J (2013) Influence of porosity on compressive and tensile strength of cement mortar. Constr Build Mater 40:869–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bahr O, Schaumann P, Bollen B, Bracke J (2012) Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of concrete at high temperatures: experimental investigations. Mater Des 45:421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM (2006) Concrete: microstructure, properties and materials. McGraw-Hill Professional, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brandt AM (2005) Cement-based composites: materials, mechanical properties and performance. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chan YN, Peng GF, Anson M (1999) Residual strength and pore structure of high-strength concrete and normal strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures. Cem Concr Compos 21(1):23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kumar R, Bhattacharjee B (2003) Porosity, pore size distribution and in situ strength of concrete. Cem Concr Res 33(1):155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Casnedi L, Cocco O, Meloni P, Pia G (2018) Water absorption properties of cement pastes: experimental and modelling inspections. Adv Mater Sci Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7679131 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pia G, Sanna U (2013) A geometrical fractal model for the porosity and thermal conductivity of insulating concrete. Constr Build Mater 44:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mistretta F, Stochino F (2017) Case study of a reinforced concrete industrial warehouse exposed to fire: post fire investigation and retrofitting. In: Proceedings of 2nd international fire safety symposium, Naples, 7–9 June 2017Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mistretta F, Serra A, Stochino F (2017) Fire on prestressed reinforced concrete: CFD and FE thermo-mechanical simulation. In: Proceedings of 2nd international fire safety symposium, Naples, 7–9 June 2017Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang B, Cullen M, Kilpatrick T (2016) Spalling of heated high performance concrete due to thermal and hygric gradients. Adv Concr Constr 4(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dauti D, Tengattini A, Dal Pont S, Toropovs N, Briffaut M, Weber B (2018) Analysis of moisture migration in concrete at high temperature through in-situ neutron tomography. Cem Concr Res 111:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bazant ZP (1997) Analysis of pore pressure, thermal stresses and fracture in rapidly heated concrete. In: Phan LT, Carino NJ, Duthinh D, Garboczi E (eds) Proceedings of international workshop on fire performance of high-strength concrete. NIST Spec. Publ. 919. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, pp 155–164Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mindeguia J-C, Pimienta P, Noumowé A, Kanema M (2010) Temperature, pore pressure and mass variation of concrete subjected to high temperature—experimental and numerical discussion on spalling risk. Cem Concr Res 40(3):477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Noumowe A, Carré H, Daoud A, Toutanji H (2006) High-strength self-compacting concrete exposed to fire test. ASCE J Mater Civ Eng 18(6):754–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Klingsch E (2014) Explosive spalling of concrete in fire. IBK-Bericht 356:1–251Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu JC, Tan KH, Yao Y (2018) A new perspective on nature of fire-induced spalling in concrete. Constr Build Mater 184:581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gražulis S, Daškevič A, Merkys A, Chateigner D, Lutterotti L, Quirós M, Serebryanaya NR, Moeck P, Downs RT, Le Bail A (2012) Crystallography Open Database (COD): an open-access collection of crystal structures and platform for world-wide collaboration. Nucl Acids Res 40:420–427Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ingham JP (2009) Application of petrographic examination techniques to the assessment of fire-damaged concrete and masonry structures. Mater Character 60:700–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Georgali B, Tsakiridis PE (2005) Microstructure of fire damaged concrete. A case study. Cem Concr Compos 27:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hurley MJ, Gottuk D, Hall JR Jr, Harada K, Kuligowski E, Puchovsky M, Torero JL, Watts JM Jr, Wieczorek CJ (eds) (2015) SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhang Q, Guang Y (2012) Dehydration kinetics of Portland cement paste at high temperature. J Therm Anal Calorim 110:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mazars J (1986) A description of micro- and macro-scale damage of concrete structures. Eng Fract Mech 25:729–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tantawy MA (2017) Effect of high temperatures on the microstructure of cement paste. J Mater Sci Chem Eng 5:33–48Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fu YF, Wong YL, Tang CA, Poon CS (2004) Thermal induced stress and associated cracking in cement-based composite at elevated temperatures-part I: thermal cracking around single inclusion. Cem Concr Compos 26:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fu YF, Wong YL, Tang CA, Poon CS (2004) Thermal induced stress and associated cracking in cement-based composite at elevated temperatures-part II: thermal cracking around multiple inclusions. Cem Concr Compos 26:113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Scrivener KL, Fullmann T, Gallucci E, Walenta G, Bermejo E (2004) Quantitative study of Portland cement hydration by X-ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis and independent methods. Cem Concr Res 34(9):1541–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sabeur H, Platret G, Vincent J (2016) Composition and microstructural changes in an aged cement pastes upon two heating-cooling regimes, as studied by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. J Therm Anal Calorim 126:1023–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Alarcon-Ruiz L, Plateret G, Massieu E, Ehrlacher A (2005) The use of thermal analysis in assessing the effect of temperature on a cement paste. Cem Concr Res 35:609–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shimada Y, Young JF (2001) Structural changes during thermal dehydration of ettringite. Adv Cem Res 13(2):77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zadražil T, Vodák F, Kapičková O (2004) Effect of temperature and age of concrete on strength—porosity relation. Acta Polytech 44:53–56Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ye G, Liu X, De Schutter G, Poppe AM, Taerwe L (2007) Influence of limestone powder used as filler in SCC on hydration and microstructure of cement pastes. Cem Concr Compos 29:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zhang Q, Ye G (2011) Microstructure analysis of heated portland cement paste. Proc Eng 14:830–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cnudde V, Cwirzen A, Masschaele B, Jacobs PJS (2009) Porosity and microstructure of building stones and concretes. Eng Geol 103:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gawin D, Pesavento F (2012) An overview of modeling cement based materials at elevated temperatures with mechanics of multi-phase porous media. Fire Technol 48:753–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mendes A, Sanjayan JG, Gates WP, Collins F (2012) The influence of water absorption and porosity on the deterioration of cement paste and concrete exposed to elevated temperatures, as in a fire event. Cem Concr Compos 34:067–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ghan YN, Peng GF, Anson M (1999) Residual strength and pore structure of high-strength concrete and normal strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures. Cem Concr Compos 21:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chan YN, Luo X, Sun W (2000) Compressive strength and pore structure of high-performance concrete after exposure to high temperature up to 800 °C. Cem Concr Res 30(2):247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chan YN, Luo X, Sun W (2000) Compressive strength and pore structure of high performance concrete after exposure to high temperature. Mater Struct 33:294–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Annerel E, Taerwe L (2011) Methods to quantify the colour development of concrete exposed to fire. Constr Build Mater 2:3989–3997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Short NR, Purkiss JA, Guise SE (2011) Assessment of fire-damaged concrete using colour image analysis. Constr Build Mater 15:3–15Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Handoo SK, Agarwal S, Agarwal SK (2002) Physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characteristics of concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Cem Concr Res 32(7):1009–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jinwoo A, Kim S, Nam BH, Durham SA (2017) Effect of aggregate mineralogy and concrete microstructure on thermal expansion and strength properties of concrete. Appl Sci 7(12):1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Xing Z, Beaucour AL, Hebert R, Noumowe A, Ledesert B (2011) Influence of the nature of aggregates on the behaviour of concrete subjected to elevated temperature. Cem Concr Res 41:392–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Xing Z, Hébert R, Beaucour AL, Ledésert B, Noumowe A (2014) Influence of chemical and mineralogical composition of concrete aggregates on their behaviour at elevated temperature. Mater Struct 47:1921–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Medina C, Frías M, Sánchez de Rojas MI (2012) Microstructure and properties of recycled concretes using ceramic sanitary ware industry waste as coarse aggregate. Constr Build Mater 31:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sancak E, Sari YD, Simsek O (2008) Effects of elevated temperature on compressive strength and weight loss of the light-weight concrete with silica fume and superplasticizer. Cem Concr Compos 30:715–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Savva A, Manita P, Sideris KK (2005) Influence of elevated temperatures on the mechanical properties of blended cement concretes prepared with limestone and siliceous aggregates. Cem Concr Compos 27:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Menéndez E, Vega L, Andrade C (2012) Use of decomposition of portlandite in concrete fire as indicator of temperature progression into the material. J Therm Anal Calorim 110:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liu C, Wang D, Zheng H, Liu T (2017) A dehydroxylation kinetics study of brucite Mg(OH)2 at elevated pressure and temperature. Phys Chem Miner 44:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nazri FM, Shahidan S, Baharuddin NK, Beddun S, Bakar BHA (2017) Effects of heating durations on normal concrete residual properties: compressive strength and mass loss. In: IOP conference series: materials science and engineering, vol 271(1)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Toumi B, Resheidat M, Guemmadi Z, Chabil H (2009) Coupled effect of high temperature and heating time on the residual strength of normal and high-strength concretes. Jordan J Civ Eng 3:322–330Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhou Q, Glasser FP (2001) Thermal stability and decomposition mechanisms of ettringite at < 120 °C. Cem Concr Res 31:1333-1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Jong MJ, Ulm FJ (2007) The nanogranular behavior C–S–H at elevated temperatures (up to 700C). Cem Concr Res 37:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Török Á, Hajpál M (2005) Effect of temperature changes on the mineralogy and physical properties of sandstones. A laboratory study. Restor Build Monum 4:1–8Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stepkowska ET (2005) Hypothetical transformation of Ca(OH)2 into CaCO3 in solid-state reactions of portland cement. J Therm Anal Calorim 80:727–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Material EngineeringUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Enviromental Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  3. 3.National Research CouncilUOS of CagliariCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations