Advertisement

Fire Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 65–86 | Cite as

Fire Resistance and Post-fire Seismic Behavior of High Strength Concrete Shear Walls

  • Jianzhuang Xiao
  • Qinghai Xie
  • Zhiwei Li
  • Wan Wang
Article

Abstract

In this study, both fire tests and low-frequency cyclic loading tests after fire were conducted on three conventional high strength concrete (HSC) shear walls and a superimposed HSC shear wall with precast recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) panels. The RAC in this paper was made with recycled concrete aggregate. When specimens suffered the fire exposure on one side for 45 min, 90 min, and 135 min separately, spalling of concrete, temperature distribution and deformation of specimens were investigated as indicators of fire response. When specimens were subjected to cyclic load after fire, hysteresis curves were obtained, based on which the secant stiffness degradation and energy dissipation capacity of walls were analyzed. The results indicated that HSC would suffer severe spalling during the fire and that fire response of the superimposed wall including spalling was smaller than that of conventional walls. Using RAC panel as a thermal barrier was found to be effective to alleviate spalling, as it reduced more than 60% of spalling of HSC compared with bare walls. Based on the seismic tests results, the fire exposure deteriorated the load bearing capacity, lateral stiffness and energy dissipation capacity of walls, whereas the application of RAC panels improved the load bearing capacity by about 10% even when the superimposed wall was exposed to the fire for a long time.

Keywords

High strength concrete (HSC) Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) Shear wall Explosive spalling Thermal barrier Fire resistance Seismic behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the research grants from the Chinese National 973 Plan (2012CB719703). The China Scholarship Council (CSC) was acknowledged for support of the first author’s research visit to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where the paper was revised.

References

  1. 1.
    Crozier D, Sanjayan J (2000) Tests of load-bearing slender reinforced concrete walls in fire. ACI Struct J 97(2):243–251Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee S, Lee C (2013) Fire resistance of reinforced concrete bearing walls subjected to all-sided fire exposure. Mater Struct 46(6):943–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee C, Lee S, Kim H (2013) Experimental observations on reinforced concrete bearing walls subjected to all-sided fire exposure. Mag Concr Res 65(2):82–92MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Go CG, Tang JR, Chi JH, Chen CT, Huang YL (2012) Fire-resistance property of reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete wall. Constr Build Mater 30:725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mueller KA, Kurama YC (2014) Through-thickness thermal behavior of two RC bearing walls under fire. Structures Congress 2014, Boston, pp 1159–1169Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xiao JZ, Li J, Jiang F (2004) Research on the seismic behavior of HPC shear walls after fire. Mater Struct 37(272):506–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu GR, Song YP, Qu FL (2010) Post-fire cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls. J Cent South Univ Technol 17(5):1103–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peng GF, Yang WW, Zhao J, Liu YF, Bian, SH, Zhao LH (2006) Explosive spalling and residual mechanical properties of fiber-toughened high-performance concrete subjected to high temperatures. Cem Concr Res 36(4):723–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Phan LT (2008) Pore pressure and explosive spalling in concrete. Mater Struct 41(10):1623–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kodur VKR (2014) Properties of concrete at elevated temperatures. ISRN Civil Eng 2014:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Castillo C, Durranil AJ (1990) Effect of transient high temperature on high-strength concrete. ACI Mater J 87(1):47–53Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hertz KD, Sørensen LS (2005) Test method for spalling of fire exposed concrete. Fire Saf J 40(5):466–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xiao JZ, Falkner H (2006) On residual strength of high-performance concrete with and without polypropylene fibres at elevated temperatures. Fire Saf J 41(2):115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poon CS, Shui ZH, Lam L (2004) Compressive behavior of fiber reinforced high-performance concrete subjected to elevated temperatures. Cem Concr Res 34(12):2215–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Han CG, Han MC, Heo YS (2009) Improvement of residual compressive strength and spalling resistance of high-strength RC columns subjected to fire. Constr Build Mater 23(1):107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    BS EN (2004) Eurocode 2: actions on structures. Design of concrete structures. Part 1–2: general rules, structural fire designGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ACI 216R-89 (Reapproved 2001). Guide for determining the fire endurance of concrete elementsGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xiao JZ, Li WG, Fan YH (2012) An overview of study on recycled aggregate concrete in China (1996-2011). Constr Build Mater 31:364–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gales J, Parker T, Cree D, Green M (2015) Fire performance of sustainable recycled concrete aggregates: mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and current research needs. Fire Technol. doi: 10.1007/s10694-015-0504-z Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Etxeberria M, Vázquez E, Marí A (2006) Microstructure analysis of hardened recycled aggregate concrete. Mag Concr Res 58(10):683–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silva RV, Brito JD, Dhir RK (2014) Properties and composition of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste suitable for concrete production. Constr Build Mater 65(13):201–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarhat S, Sherwood E (2013) Residual mechanical response of recycled aggregate concrete after exposure to elevated temperatures. J Mater Civ Eng 25(11):1721–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xiao JZ, Fan YH, Tawana, MM (2013) Residual compressive and flexural strength of a recycled aggregate concrete following elevated temperatures. Struct Concr 14(2):168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shi CK, Chi SP, Etxeberria M (2014) Residue strength, water absorption and pore size distributions of recycled aggregate concrete after exposure to elevated temperatures. Cem Concr Compos 53(10):73–82Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cree D, Green M, Noumowe A (2013) Residual strength of concrete containing recycled materials after exposure to fire: a review. Constr Build Mater 45:208–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harmathy TZ (1965) Ten rules of fire endurance rating. Fire Technol 1(2):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gales J, Parker T, Green M, Cree D, Bisby L (2014) High temperature performance of sustainable concrete with recycled concrete aggregates. In: Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Shanghai: 1203–1210Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    GB175 (2007) Common portland cement. China Building Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    ASTM E119 (2015) Standard test methods for fire tests of building construction and materials. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    GB/T 9978.1 (2008) Fire-resistance tests-elements of building construction. Standards Press of China, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen XT, Rougelot T, Davy CA, Chen W, Agostini F, Skoczylas F, Bourbon X (2009) Experimental evidence of a moisture clog effect in cement-based materials under temperature. Cem Concr Res 39(12):1139–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klingsch EWH (2014) Explosive spalling of concrete in fire. PhD Thesis, Eidgenössische Technische HochschuleGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Msaad Y, Bonnet G (2006) Analyses of heated concrete spalling due to restrained thermal dilation: Application to the “channel” fire. J Eng Mech 132(10):1124–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jansson R (2013) Fire spalling of concrete: theoretical and experimental studies. PhD Thesis, KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Connolly RJ (1995) The spalling of concrete in fires. PhD Thesis, Aston UniversityGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khoury GA (2000) Effect of fire on concrete and concrete structures. Prog Struct Mater Eng 2(4):429–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kodur VKR, Sultan MA (2003) Effect of temperature on thermal properties of high-strength concrete. J Mater Civ Eng 15:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nie JG, Hu HS, Fan JS, Tao MX, Li SY, Liu FJ (2013) Experimental study on seismic behavior of high-strength concrete filled double-steel-plate composite walls. J Constr Steel Res 88:206–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li M, Qian CX, Sun W (2004) Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete after fire. Cem Concr Res 46(6):1001–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ghandehari M, Behnood A, Khanzadi M (2010) Residual mechanical properties of high-strength concretes after exposure to elevated temperatures. J Mater Civ Eng 22(1):59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kahn LF, Mitchell AD (2002) Shear friction tests with high-strength concrete. ACI Struct J 99(1):98–103Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mansur MA, Vinayagam T, Tan KH (2008) Shear transfer across a crack in reinforced high-strength concrete. J Mater Civ Eng 20(4):294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sullivan PJE, Sharshar R (1992) The performance of concrete at elevated temperatures (as measured by the reduction in compressive strength). Fire Technol 28(3):240–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Poon CS, Azhar S (2003) Deterioration and recovery of metakaolin blended concrete subjected to high temperature. Fire Technol 39(1):35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Morley PD, Royles R (1983) Response of the bond in reinforced concrete to high temperatures. Mag Concr Res 35(123):67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Xiao JZ, Hou YZ, Huang ZF (2014) Beam test on bond behavior between high-grade rebar and high-strength concrete after elevated temperatures. Fire Saf J 69:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianzhuang Xiao
    • 1
  • Qinghai Xie
    • 1
  • Zhiwei Li
    • 1
  • Wan Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Structural EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations