Advertisement

Fire Technology

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 179–188 | Cite as

Application of FDS to Adhered Spill Plumes in Atria

  • N. TilleyEmail author
  • B. Merci
Article

Abstract

In a recently published article (Poreh et al., Fire Saf J 43(5):344–350, 2008), Poreh et al. carried out a number of experiments in a small-scale atrium. They investigated the mass flow of the spill plume in case of fire emerging from an adjacent room or corridor. Based on these experiments, the equation for the mass flow rates of adhered spill plumes in atria was adjusted. In our article, we repeat the experiments in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. The results agree well, both with the experiments and the suggested formula. After this first validation, large-scale CFD-simulations are carried out. It appears that the equation suggested by Poreh et al. is only valid in the case of a uniform smoke layer depth. If the smoke layer has a more complex configuration, the formula is no longer reliable for the design of the smoke and heat exhaust ventilation system.

Keywords

spill plume CFD atrium fire smoke control 

Abbreviations

C

Constant (kg/m s kW1/3)

Cm

Entrainment coefficient

cp

Heat capacity (kJ/kg K)

D

Hydraulic diameter (m)

Db

Emerging smoke layer thickness (m)

Ds

Thickness of smoke layer in atrium (m)

g

Gravity acceleration (m/s2)

L

Lateral length of plume (m)

Mb

Emerging smoke layer mass flow (kg/s)

Tav

Average temperature of smoke layer (K)

M

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat release rate (kW)

\( Q^{ * } \)

Dimensionless HRR

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

ρ

Ambient density (kg/m3)

T

Temperature (K)

T

Ambient temperature (K)

W

Width (m)

z

Height (m)

z0

Virtual origin (m)

References

  1. 1.
    Law M (1986) A note on smoke plumes from fires in multi-level shopping malls. Fire Saf J 10(3):197–202. doi: 10.1016/0379-7112(86)90016-0
  2. 2.
    Thomas PH (1987) On the upward movement of smoke and related shopping mall problems. Fire Saf J 12(3):191–203. doi: 10.1016/0379-7112(87)90005-1
  3. 3.
    Law M (1995) Measurements of balcony smoke flow. Fire Saf J 24(2):189-195. doi: 10.1016/0379-7112(95)00011-H
  4. 4.
    NFPA 92B (2005) Smoke management systems in malls, atria and large areas, 2000 edition. Publication No. 92B, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Poreh M, Morgan HP, Marshall NR, Harrison R (1998) Entrainment by two-dimensional spill plumes. Fire Saf J 30(1):1–19. doi: 10.1016/S0379-7112(97)00036-2 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas PH, Morgan HP, Marshall N (1998) The spill plume in smoke control design. Fire Saf J 30(1):21–46. doi: 10.1016/S0379-7112(97)00037-4 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harrison R, Spearpoint M (2006) Entrainment of air into a balcony spill plume. J Fire Protect Eng 16:211–245. doi: 10.1177/1042391506057954 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Poreh M, Marshall NR, Regev A (2008) Entrainment by adhered two-dimensional plumes. Fire Saf J 43(5):344–350. doi: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2007.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McGrattan K (2006) Fire dynamics simulator (version 4) technical reference guide—NIST 1018. National Institute of Technology and StandardsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McGrattan K, Forney G (2006) Fire dynamics simulator (version 4) user’s guide—NIST 1019. National Institute of Technology and StandardsGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee L, Emmons HW (1961) A study of natural convection above a line fire. J Fluid Mech 11(3):353–368. doi: 10.1017/S0022112061000573 zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morgan HP, Ghosh BK, Garrad G, Pamlitschka R, De Smedt J-C, Schoonbaert LR (1999) Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation, br368 building research establishment, Garston, Watford, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion MechanicsGhent University—UGentGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology (IWT-Vlaanderen)FlandersBelgium
  3. 3.Postdoctoral Fellow of the Fund of Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen)FlandersBelgium

Personalised recommendations