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Fire Technology

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 283–302 | Cite as

Fire Spread and Flame Length in Large-Scale Tunnel Fires

  • Anders Lönnermark
  • Haukur Ingason
Article

Abstract

An analysis of fire spread during four large-scale fire tests that were performed in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway is presented. The fire loads consisted of mock-ups simulating a Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) trailer. The fire spread downstream of the HGV trailer mock-ups was studied, both to large targets with the same type of commodities as used in the trailer mock-up for each tests, and to small pieces of wood and plastic poles placed at different distances from the fire. The purpose was to determine a critical distance for fire spread between HGV trailers for different heat release rate histories. The time to ignition of a second object and fire spreading distances were estimated from post-visual observations and temperature measurements. Correlations for flame length were developed from the experimental results. Since the average temperature of the cross-section often is used to estimate fire spread, results from a model for the average temperature were compared with the measured temperatures.

Key Words

fire spread tunnel HGV flame length large-scale experiments gas temperature measurements 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anders Lönnermark
    • 1
  • Haukur Ingason
    • 1
  1. 1.SP Swedish National Testing and Research InstituteFire TechnologyBoråsSweden

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