Advertisement

Feminist Legal Studies

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 243–261 | Cite as

Beyond Sexual Violence in Transitional Justice: Political Insecurity as a Gendered Harm

  • Julieta LemaitreEmail author
  • Kristin Bergtora SandvikEmail author
Article

Abstract

The growing literature on gender in armed conflict and the debates over post-conflict reparations for women, focus on the prevalence and harms of sexual violence. While this focus has recently been critiqued, there are few articulations of other types of gendered injuries. This article decentres the emphasis on sexual violence by examining the intersection between forced displacement and political insecurity. Based on extensive field research in Colombia, and using as an example a case study of an internally displaced women’s grassroots organization in Cartagena, Colombia, this article examines political insecurity as a specifically gendered harm. It reflects on the concrete circumstances of insecurity, on the relevance of traditional gender roles in the constitution of insecurity, and on the challenges for court-ordered remedies. This widening of the scope of attention also invites complex reflection on the possibility of transformative reparations in post-conflict situations.

Keywords

Colombia Colombian Constitutional Court Gender and transitional justice Insecurity Internal displacement Reparations 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study on which this article is based, entitled “The Significance of Political Organization and International Law for Internally Displaced Women in Colombia: A Socio-Legal Study of Liga de Mujeres, is a joint undertaking on the part of the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), in Norway, and the Centro de Investigaciones Socio-Jurídicas (CIJUS) Universidad de los Andes Bogotá, Colombia. The Norwegian Research Council funded the study. The data collected for this Project has been stored according to the regulations and requirements of the Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD). The authors thank Eva Sol Lopez, Juan Pablo Mosquera and Juliana Vargas for creative and committed research assistance, and the editors and anonymous reviewers at Feminist Legal Studies for detailed and insightful comments on a previous version of this article.

References

  1. Bell, Christine, and Catherine O’Rourke. 2007. Does feminism need a theory of transitional justice? An introductory essay. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1(1): 23–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buckley-Zistel, Susanne, and Ruth Stanley (eds.). 2011. Gender in transitional justice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Cepeda-Espinosa, Manuel José. 2004. Judicial activism in a violent context: The origin, role, and impact of the Colombian constitutional court. Washington University Global Studies Law Review 3: 529–699.Google Scholar
  4. Charlesworth, Hilary. 1999. Feminist methods in international law. American Journal of International Law 93: 379–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Charlesworth, Hilary. 2011. Talking to ourselves: Feminist scholarship in international Law. In Feminist perspectives on contemporary international law: Between resistance and compliance, ed. Zoe Pearson, and Sari Kuovo, 17–32. Oxford: Hart publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Charlesworth, Hilary, and Christine Mary Chinkin. 2000. The boundaries of international law: A feminist analysis, 2000. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Charlesworth, Hilary, Christine Chinkin, and Shelley Wright. 1991. Feminist approaches to international law. American Journal of International Law 85: 613–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CODHES (Consultoria para los derechos humanos y el desplazamiento.) 2011. De la seguridad a la prosperidad democrática en medio del conflicto, CODHES Document 23.Google Scholar
  9. Comisión de Memoria Histórica. 2010. La Tierra en Disputa. Bogotá: Taurus.Google Scholar
  10. Comisión de Memoria Histórica. 2011. Mujeres en la Guerra. Bogotá: Taurus.Google Scholar
  11. Comisión de Seguimiento. 2008. Séptimo informe de verificación sobre el cumplimiento de derechos a la población en situación de desplazamiento. Bogotá: Unpublished document on file with authors.Google Scholar
  12. Cook, Rebecca J. 1993. Women’s international human rights law: The way forward. Human Rights Quarterly 15: 230–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Copelon, Rhonda. 2000. Gender crimes as war crimes: Integrating crimes against women into international criminal law. McGill Law Journal 46: 217.Google Scholar
  14. Daly, Kathleen, and Julie Stubbs. 2006. Feminist engagement with restorative justice. Theoretical Criminology 10(1): 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duthie, Roger (ed.). 2012. Transitional justice and displacement. New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  16. Duthie, Roger. 2011. Transitional justice and displacement. International Journal of Transitional Justice 5(2): 241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Engle, Karen. 2005. International human rights and feminisms: When discourses keep meeting. In International law: modern feminist approaches, ed. Buss Doris, and Ambreena S. Manji, 47–66. Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Fineman, Martha A., and Estelle Zinsstag (eds.). 2013. Feminist perspectives on transitional justice: From international and criminal to alternative forms of justice. Cambridge: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  19. Franke, Katherine M. 2006. Gendered subject of transitional justice. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15: 813.Google Scholar
  20. Garay, Luis Jorge. 2008. La captura y reconfiguración cooptada del estado en Colombia. Bogotá: Avina, Grupo Método, and Transparencia por Colombia.Google Scholar
  21. de Greiff, Pablo (ed.). 2006. The handbook of reparations. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Halley, Janet, Prabha Kotiswaran, Hila Shamir, and Chantal Thomas. 2006. From the international to the local in feminist legal responses to rape, prostitution/sex work, and sex trafficking: Four studies in contemporary governance feminism. Harvard Journal of Law and Gender 29: 335.Google Scholar
  23. Halley, Janet. 2008. Rape at Rome: Feminist interventions in the criminalization of sex-related violence in positive international criminal law. Michigan Journal of International Law 30: 1–23.Google Scholar
  24. Ibáñez, Ana María, and Andrés Moya. 2010. Vulnerability of victims of civil conflicts: Empirical evidence for the displaced population in Colombia. World Development 38(4): 647–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. IDMC International Displacement Monitoring Centre. 2014. Colombia: Displacement continues despite hope for Peace. http://www.internal-displacement.org/assets/library/Americas/Colombia/pdf/201401-am-colombia-overview-en.pdf.
  26. Knop, Karen (ed.). 2004. Gender and human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Landau, David. 2012. The reality of social rights enforcement. Harvard International Law Journal 53(1): 189–247.Google Scholar
  28. Lemaitre, Julieta, Eva Sol López, Juan Pablo Mosquera, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, and Juliana Vargas Gómez. 2014. De desplazados a víctimas. Los cambios legales y la participación de la Mesa de Víctimas de Mocoa, Putumayo [Displaced victims. Legal changes and involvement of the Bureau of Victims of Mocoa, Putumayo], PRIO Report, 8. Colombia: Universidad De Los Andes (Justica Global).Google Scholar
  29. López, Claudia (ed.). 2010. Y refundaron la patria. Bogotá: Editorial Debate.Google Scholar
  30. MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1994. Rape, genocide, and women’s human rights. Harvard Women’s Law Journal 17: 5.Google Scholar
  31. Mackinnon, Catharine A. 2013. Creating international law: Gender as leading edge. Harvard Journal of Women and the law. 36: 105–121.Google Scholar
  32. Meertens, Donny. 2010. Forced displacement and women’s security in Colombia. Disasters 34(S2): S147–S164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meertens, Donny, and Margarita Zambrano. 2010. Citizenship deferred: The politics of victimhood, land restitution and gender justice in the Colombian (post?) conflict. International Journal of Transitional Justice 4(2): 189–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mooney, Erin. 2005. The concept of internal displacement and the case for internally displaced persons as a category of concern. Refugee Survey Quarterly 24(3): 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nagy, Rosemary. 2008. Transitional justice as global project: Critical reflections. Third World Quarterly 29(2): 275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala. 2012. Advancing feminist positioning in the field of transitional justice. International Journal of Transitional Justice 6(2): 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. OAS (Organization of American States). 2006. Violence and Discrimination Against Women in the Armed Conflict in Colombia. OEA/Ser.L/V/II. Doc. 67 October 18, 2006 O.Google Scholar
  38. Oosterveld, Valerie. 2005. Definition of gender in the Rome statute of the international criminal court: A step forward or back for international criminal justice. Harvard Human Rights Journal 18: 55.Google Scholar
  39. O’Rourke, Catherine. 2013a. International law and domestic gender justice, or why case studies matter. In Feminist perspectives on transitional justice: From international and criminal to alternative forms of justice, ed. Fineman, Martha and Zinsstag, Estelle. Cambridge: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  40. O’Rourke, Catherine. 2013b. Gender politics in transitional justice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Otto, Dianne. 2009. Exile of inclusion: Reflections on gender issues in international law over the last decade. Melbourne Journal of International Law 10: 11.Google Scholar
  42. Petesch, Patti, and Vanessa Joan Gray. 2009. Violence, forced displacement, and chronic poverty in Colombia. In Moving out of poverty: Rising from the ashes of conflict, ed. Deepa Narayanand Patti Petesch, 192–247. Washington, D.C.: Palgrave Macmillan UK/World Bank.Google Scholar
  43. Rodríguez-Garavito, César. 2011. Beyond the courtroom: The impact of judicial activism on socioeconomic rights in Latin America. Texas Law Review 7: 1669.Google Scholar
  44. Rodríguez-Garavito, César, and Diana Rodríguez-Franco. 2010. Cortes y cambio social: cómo la Corte Constitucional transformó el desplazamiento forzado en Colombia, 2010. Bogota: Dejusticia.Google Scholar
  45. Rubio-Marin, Ruth, and Clara Sandoval. 2011. Engendering the reparations jurisprudence of the Inter-American court of human rights: The promise of the cotton field judgment. Human Rights Quarterly 33(4): 1062–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rubio-Marín, Ruth. 2006. The gender of reparations: Setting the agenda. In What happened to the women? Gender and reparations for human rights violations, ed. Ruth Rubio-Marín. New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  47. Rubio-Marin, Ruth. 2012. Reparations for conflict-related sexual and reproductive violence: A decalogue. William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law 19: 1(69/104).Google Scholar
  48. Saffon, Maria Paula, and Rodrigo Uprimny. 2007. Uses and abuses of transitional justice in Colombia. Bogota: DeJusticia.Google Scholar
  49. Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora, and Julieta Lemaitre. 2013. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: The view from Colombia. Disasters 37(s1): S36–S50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sharp, Dustin N. 2013. Interrogating the Peripheries: The preoccupations of fourth generation transitional Justice. Harvard Human Rights Journal 26: 149–283.Google Scholar
  51. Sierra, Alvaro & María Clara Calle. 2013. “Los grandes desafíos, 2013”, Semana. http://www.semana.com/Especiales/restitucion-tierras/index.html.
  52. Teitel, Ruti G. 2003. Transitional justice genealogy. Harvard Human Rights Journal 16: 69.Google Scholar
  53. Theidon, Kimberly. 2007. Gender in transition: Common sense, women, and war. Journal of Human Rights 6: 453–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. United Nations. 2006. The basic principles and guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law G.A. Res. 60/147, 18–23, U.N. Doc. A/RES/60/147 (21 Mar 2006).Google Scholar
  55. United Nations. 2011. Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council (S/2011/634).Google Scholar
  56. Vijeyarasa, Ramona. 2013. Women at the margins of international law: Reconceptualizing dominant discourses on gender and transitional justice. International Journal of Transitional Justice 7(2): 358–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. von Au, Anne Kathrin. 2013. The transformative potential of gender justice in the land restitution programme in Colombia. Anuario de acción humanitaria y derechos humanos= Yearbook of humanitarian action and human rights 11: 207–239.Google Scholar
  58. Waylen, Georgina. 1994. Women and democratization: Conceptualizing gender relations in transition politics. World Politics 46(03): 327–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wood, Elisabeth. 2006. Variation in sexual violence during war. Politics and Society 34(3): 307–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2012. Rape during war is not inevitable: Variation in wartime sexual violence. In Understanding and proving international sex crimes, ed. Morten Bergsmo, Alf B. Skre, and Elisabeth Jean Wood, 389–419. Oslo: Torkel Opsahl Academic Epublisher.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad de los Andes Law SchoolBogotáColombia
  2. 2.Peace Research Institute at Oslo (PRIO)OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations